• Byzantine Roman mosaics , c. 561 AD, in the Basilica of Sant' Apollinare Nuovo, depicting  the Three Magi, moving from the city of Classe towards the group of the Madonna and Child surrounded by four angels. Ravenna Italy, A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics , c. 561 AD, in the Basilica of Sant Apollinare Nuovo, depicting  the Three Magi, moving from the city of Classe towards the group of the Madonna and Child surrounded by four angels. Ravenna Italy, A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics , c. 561 AD, in the Basilica of Sant Apollinare Nuovo, depicting 22 Virgins led by the Three Magi, moving from the city of Classe towards the group of the Madonna and Child surrounded by four angels. Ravenna Italy, A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics , c. 561 AD, in the Basilica of Sant Apollinare Nuovo, depicting 22 Virgins led by the Three Magi, moving from the city of Classe towards the group of the Madonna and Child surrounded by four angels. Ravenna Italy, A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Mosaic panel depicting The sacrifice of Isaac.  Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics of the ceiling of the Apse of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Apse of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Mosaic panel depicting The sacrifice of Isaac.  Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Mosaic panel depicting The sacrifice of Isaac.  Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Mosaic depicting Abel making sacrifice. Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Mosaic depicting Emperor Justinian I. Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Apse mosaic depicting a clean shaven Christ, Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Mosaic depicting Empress Theodora and attendants. Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Mosaic depicting Emperor Justinian I. Byzantine Roman mosaics of the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy. Mosaic decoration paid for by Emperor Justinian I in 547. A UNESCO World Heritage Site
  • Ceiling of The Arian Baptistry in Ravenna built by Theoderic the Great in the late 5th century AD, depicting an unshaven Christ being baptised by John the Baptist, Ravenna, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Ceiling of The Arian Baptistry in Ravenna built by Theoderic the Great in the late 5th century AD, depicting an unshaven Christ being baptised by John the Baptist, Ravenna, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • Worker with a column on a horse cart, a detail from an early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia, The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • Early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • Early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • Early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • Early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • Early seventh Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic of Matziceus, a Libyan, with the inscription reading: ‘the faithful Matziceus lived in peace for 42 years, rested (died) on the fifteenth of the calends of June’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with vines which grow out of a cantharus, a Greek style drinking cup, which represents the fountain of life.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the Parish church of Demna, left AisleBardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. White background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. White background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Grey background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic of Matziceus, a Libyan, with the inscription reading: ‘the faithful Matziceus lived in peace for 42 years, rested (died) on the fifteenth of the calends of June’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with vines which grow out of a cantharus, a Greek style drinking cup, which represents the fountain of life.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the Parish church of Demna, left AisleBardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Grey background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic of Matziceus, a Libyan, with the inscription reading: ‘the faithful Matziceus lived in peace for 42 years, rested (died) on the fifteenth of the calends of June’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with vines which grow out of a cantharus, a Greek style drinking cup, which represents the fountain of life.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the Parish church of Demna, left AisleBardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic of Matziceus, a Libyan, with the inscription reading: ‘the faithful Matziceus lived in peace for 42 years, rested (died) on the fifteenth of the calends of June’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with vines which grow out of a cantharus, a Greek style drinking cup, which represents the fountain of life.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the Parish church of Demna, left AisleBardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a hunters from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a hunter from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of horses from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a hunters from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of deer from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a mythical Griffin from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of an Eagle catching a snake from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of goats from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a man thinking, possibly a philospher, from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a mythical Griffin from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a man with an amphora from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a race from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a man from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman hare hunt mosaics from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman hare hunt mosaics from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman lion mosaics from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a man thinking, possibly a philospher, from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a mythical Griffin from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a man with an amphora from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a race from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman hare hunt mosaics from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman hare hunt mosaics from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a hunters from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a hunters from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a mythical Griffin from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a hunter from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of an Eagle catching a snake from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman lion mosaics from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of a man from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of horses from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of deer from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • 6th century Byzantine Roman mosaics of goats from the peristyle of the Great Palace from the reign of Emperor Justinian I. Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Medieval ivory relief panel from a diptych depicting a triumphant Byzantine Roman Emperor, probably Justinian. From Constantinople, 6th century. Inv. OA 9063, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Christian ivory diptych depicting the Nativity, the crucifixion and the Profits. Thirteenth century probably from Byzantine Roman Constantinople, present day Istanbul. Inv. OA 12442, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • The 11th century Roman Byzantine Church of the Holy Saviour in Chora and its mosaic of Joseph and Mary and the enrollment for the census for taxation (panelA-2). Endowed between 1315-1321  by the powerful Byzantine statesman and humanist Theodore Metochites. Kariye Museum, Istanbul
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Medieval ivory relief panel from a diptych depicting a triumphant Byzantine Roman Emperor, probably Justinian. From Constantinople, 6th century. Inv. OA 9063, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Christian ivory diptych depicting the Nativity, the crucifixion and the Profits. Thirteenth century probably from Byzantine Roman Constantinople, present day Istanbul. Inv. OA 12442, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century  Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. v
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additio-nal details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey art background.
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of an un-named man described as gentle and depicted with a bushel used to measure grain from the public grain warehouse. On its side is teh Chi Rho symbols used by early Christians to represent Christ.  Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Grey background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic from Leptis Minus-Lemto in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sehel Region) dedicated to Cresconius, depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic from Leptis Minus-Lemto in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sehel Region) dedicated to Cresconius, depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • 5th century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of Crescentia from Tharbarka western Necropolis in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The funerary portrait depicts a young girl, Crescentia, dressed in a dalmatic tunic with vertical stripes, pulled in at the waist by a belt , with a necklace around her neck. Today the dalmatic is a long wide-sleeved tunic, which still serves as a liturgical vestment in the Roman Catholic church. To the right side of Crescentia is a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Sixth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian walk in Baptismal font made from marble. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • Sixth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian walk in Baptismal font made from marble. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of a father and daughter, the father is sitting at a bankers desk. Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis.
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of a father and daughter, the father is sitting at a bankers desk. Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis. White background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of a father and daughter, the father is sitting at a bankers desk. Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis. Grey background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of a father and daughter, the father is sitting at a bankers desk. Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis. Black background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of an un-named man described as gentle and depicted with a bushel used to measure grain from the public grain warehouse. On its side is teh Chi Rho symbols used by early Christians to represent Christ.  Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of an un-named man described as gentle and depicted with a bushel used to measure grain from the public grain warehouse. On its side is teh Chi Rho symbols used by early Christians to represent Christ.  Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of an un-named man described as gentle and depicted with a bushel used to measure grain from the public grain warehouse. On its side is teh Chi Rho symbols used by early Christians to represent Christ.  Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Grey background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic of an un-named man described as gentle and depicted with a bushel used to measure grain from the public grain warehouse. On its side is teh Chi Rho symbols used by early Christians to represent Christ.  Thabarca, Tabarks, 5th Century AD, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. White background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. White background
  • North African Christian mosaic fragment from the ambulatory, cloister,  of the pilgrimage church of Bir Ftouha, Cathage, Tunisia. The geometric mosaic deign is mad up of intersecting circlular medalions that enclose depictions of birds, roses and baskets. Eastern Roman Byzantine Era, Bardo Museum, Tunis
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic from Leptis Minus-Lemto in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sehel Region) dedicated to Cresconius, depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine   funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  The inscription in the cartouche reads " Leontia in peace and harmony with God, entered into eternal life on the Sixth Ides of October". Two birds and cut Roses occupy the rest of the mosaic. <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  The inscription in the cartouche reads " Leontia in peace and harmony with God, entered into eternal life on the Sixth Ides of October". Two birds and cut Roses occupy the rest of the mosaic. <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  The inscription in the cartouche reads " Leontia in peace and harmony with God, entered into eternal life on the Sixth Ides of October". Two birds and cut Roses occupy the rest of the mosaic. <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  The inscription in the cartouche reads " Leontia in peace and harmony with God, entered into eternal life on the Sixth Ides of October". Two birds and cut Roses occupy the rest of the mosaic. <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  The inscription in the cartouche reads " Leontia in peace and harmony with God, entered into eternal life on the Sixth Ides of October". Two birds and cut Roses occupy the rest of the mosaic. <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • Roman Byzantine floor Mosaics of the early Christian Church of St. Christopher, Qabar Hiram, Lebanon, AD 575. Louvre Museum Paris inv 2230-2235
  • 6th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian mosaic of the mosaic of the Most Holy Sepulchre and the memorial of Golgotha in Jerusalem .<br />
<br />
In the foreground is the dome of Golgotha, erected at the site of the crucifixion ofJesus Christ, from where  the four rivers of Paradise flow: the Geon = Gihon, the Fison = Pishon, the Tigris and Euphrates, symbolically referring to the Word (the four gospels). Sheep, representing the faithfuls, are drinking from the rivers. In the background are depictions of the the Holy Sepulchre with its door ajar, and two other buildings, symbolising Bethlehem and Jerusalem. <br />
<br />
From the threshold of the martyrdom erected in honour of Jesus Christ at the church of Iunca - Younga (in present the day region of Mahres in Tunisia). The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian mosaic of the mosaic of the Most Holy Sepulchre and the memorial of Golgotha in Jerusalem .<br />
<br />
In the foreground is the dome of Golgotha, erected at the site of the crucifixion ofJesus Christ, from where  the four rivers of Paradise flow: the Geon = Gihon, the Fison = Pishon, the Tigris and Euphrates, symbolically referring to the Word (the four gospels). Sheep, representing the faithfuls, are drinking from the rivers. In the background are depictions of the the Holy Sepulchre with its door ajar, and two other buildings, symbolising Bethlehem and Jerusalem. <br />
<br />
From the threshold of the martyrdom erected in honour of Jesus Christ at the church of Iunca - Younga (in present the day region of Mahres in Tunisia). The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian mosaic of the mosaic of the Most Holy Sepulchre and the memorial of Golgotha in Jerusalem .<br />
<br />
In the foreground is the dome of Golgotha, erected at the site of the crucifixion ofJesus Christ, from where  the four rivers of Paradise flow: the Geon = Gihon, the Fison = Pishon, the Tigris and Euphrates, symbolically referring to the Word (the four gospels). Sheep, representing the faithfuls, are drinking from the rivers. In the background are depictions of the the Holy Sepulchre with its door ajar, and two other buildings, symbolising Bethlehem and Jerusalem. <br />
<br />
From the threshold of the martyrdom erected in honour of Jesus Christ at the church of Iunca - Younga (in present the day region of Mahres in Tunisia). The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian mosaic of the mosaic of the Most Holy Sepulchre and the memorial of Golgotha in Jerusalem .<br />
<br />
In the foreground is the dome of Golgotha, erected at the site of the crucifixion ofJesus Christ, from where  the four rivers of Paradise flow: the Geon = Gihon, the Fison = Pishon, the Tigris and Euphrates, symbolically referring to the Word (the four gospels). Sheep, representing the faithfuls, are drinking from the rivers. In the background are depictions of the the Holy Sepulchre with its door ajar, and two other buildings, symbolising Bethlehem and Jerusalem. <br />
<br />
From the threshold of the martyrdom erected in honour of Jesus Christ at the church of Iunca - Younga (in present the day region of Mahres in Tunisia). The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • 6th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian mosaic of the mosaic of the Most Holy Sepulchre and the memorial of Golgotha in Jerusalem .<br />
<br />
In the foreground is the dome of Golgotha, erected at the site of the crucifixion ofJesus Christ, from where  the four rivers of Paradise flow: the Geon = Gihon, the Fison = Pishon, the Tigris and Euphrates, symbolically referring to the Word (the four gospels). Sheep, representing the faithfuls, are drinking from the rivers. In the background are depictions of the the Holy Sepulchre with its door ajar, and two other buildings, symbolising Bethlehem and Jerusalem. <br />
<br />
From the threshold of the martyrdom erected in honour of Jesus Christ at the church of Iunca - Younga (in present the day region of Mahres in Tunisia). The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic of two adults and a young child. <br />
<br />
Acanthus scrollwork bearing the fruits of the vine and full of birds (border). The epitaph, set into a centred laurel wreath, reads : Constantia in peace. has lived 55 years, died on the 8th of the Ides of August (August 23); Gaudiosa in peace has lived 22 years, died on the Third ides of May (may 18) The epitaph of the child, who died without being baptised and was buried with the two adult deceased, runs at the bottom of the panel : (P)alatinus, innocent, peaceful, departed on the Fifth ides of April. <br />
<br />
From Demna pariah church, near the hallway connecting the vestibule to the choir. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic of two adults and a young child. <br />
<br />
Acanthus scrollwork bearing the fruits of the vine and full of birds (border). The epitaph, set into a centred laurel wreath, reads : Constantia in peace. has lived 55 years, died on the 8th of the Ides of August (August 23); Gaudiosa in peace has lived 22 years, died on the Third ides of May (may 18) The epitaph of the child, who died without being baptised and was buried with the two adult deceased, runs at the bottom of the panel : (P)alatinus, innocent, peaceful, departed on the Fifth ides of April. <br />
<br />
From Demna pariah church, near the hallway connecting the vestibule to the choir. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic of two adults and a young child. <br />
<br />
Acanthus scrollwork bearing the fruits of the vine and full of birds (border). The epitaph, set into a centred laurel wreath, reads : Constantia in peace. has lived 55 years, died on the 8th of the Ides of August (August 23); Gaudiosa in peace has lived 22 years, died on the Third ides of May (may 18) The epitaph of the child, who died without being baptised and was buried with the two adult deceased, runs at the bottom of the panel : (P)alatinus, innocent, peaceful, departed on the Fifth ides of April. <br />
<br />
From Demna pariah church, near the hallway connecting the vestibule to the choir. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic of two adults and a young child. <br />
<br />
Acanthus scrollwork bearing the fruits of the vine and full of birds (border). The epitaph, set into a centred laurel wreath, reads : Constantia in peace. has lived 55 years, died on the 8th of the Ides of August (August 23); Gaudiosa in peace has lived 22 years, died on the Third ides of May (may 18) The epitaph of the child, who died without being baptised and was buried with the two adult deceased, runs at the bottom of the panel : (P)alatinus, innocent, peaceful, departed on the Fifth ides of April. <br />
<br />
From Demna pariah church, near the hallway connecting the vestibule to the choir. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of  a fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic of two adults and a young child. <br />
<br />
Acanthus scrollwork bearing the fruits of the vine and full of birds (border). The epitaph, set into a centred laurel wreath, reads : Constantia in peace. has lived 55 years, died on the 8th of the Ides of August (August 23); Gaudiosa in peace has lived 22 years, died on the Third ides of May (may 18) The epitaph of the child, who died without being baptised and was buried with the two adult deceased, runs at the bottom of the panel : (P)alatinus, innocent, peaceful, departed on the Fifth ides of April. <br />
<br />
From Demna pariah church, near the hallway connecting the vestibule to the choir. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic of two adults and a young child. <br />
<br />
Acanthus scrollwork bearing the fruits of the vine and full of birds (border). The epitaph, set into a centred laurel wreath, reads : Constantia in peace. has lived 55 years, died on the 8th of the Ides of August (August 23); Gaudiosa in peace has lived 22 years, died on the Third ides of May (may 18) The epitaph of the child, who died without being baptised and was buried with the two adult deceased, runs at the bottom of the panel : (P)alatinus, innocent, peaceful, departed on the Fifth ides of April. <br />
<br />
From Demna pariah church, near the hallway connecting the vestibule to the choir. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Picture of the Nymphaeum located inside the sacred area in front of the Apollo temple on the main colonnaded road. Dated from the 2nd century AD and repaired in the 5th century during the Byzantine era. Hierapolis archaeological site near Pamukkale in Turkey.
  • 6th-7th Century v Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Picture of The north Byzantine gate forms part of a fortification system built at Hierapolis in late 4th century Theodosian times. Hierapolis archaeological site near Pamukkale in Turkey.
  • Fifth century Roman Christian funerary mosaic from Leptis Minus-Lemto in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sehel Region) dedicated to Cresconius, depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 4th Century Byzantine Christian chapel next to the 3rd cent. B.C Temple of Artimis. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.
  • 4th Century Byzantine Christian chapel next to the 3rd cent. B.C Temple of Artimis. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.
  • Roman mosaic of a Church with Towers, Eastern Mediterranean, 5th century AD. The church has three naves and is represented in a 'flattened Perspective’ as can be seen by the facade and along sides forming a straight continuous line. The mosaic shows the architecture of early Roman Chriatian Basilicas. Inv 3676, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Eastern Mediterranean Roman mosaics of Animals, late 5th - 6th century. Marble cubes, and limestone. Three animals are in the race, a dog, a lion and a pheasant. They belonged perhaps to a hunting scene which was a popular floor decoration in houses or they may illustrate the biblical theme of 'Peace of animals', found on the floors of the churches of the Eastern Roman provinces. inv 3672, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • Detail of a second century Roman funerary stele dedicated to Anninia Laeta from the cemetery of Thuburbo Majus a city of the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum , Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Second century Roman funerary stele dedicated to Anninia Laeta from the cemetery of Thuburbo Majus a city of the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum , Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Second century Roman funerary stele dedicated to Anninia Laeta from the cemetery of Thuburbo Majus a city of the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum , Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Second century Roman funerary stele dedicated to Anninia Laeta from the cemetery of Thuburbo Majus a city of the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum , Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Second century Roman funerary stele dedicated to Anninia Laeta from the cemetery of Thuburbo Majus a city of the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum , Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Second century Roman funerary stele dedicated to Anninia Laeta from the cemetery of Thuburbo Majus a city of the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum , Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century AD Roman Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
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<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 4th Century Byzantine Christian chapel next to the 3rd cent. B.C Temple of Artimis. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.
  • Birds around a  Daphne vase. 1st to 3rd century SD Roman Mosaic from Antioche, Turkey. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Church with Towers, Eastern Mediterranean, 5th century AD. The church has three naves and is represented in a 'flattened Perspective’ as can be seen by the facade and along sides forming a straight continuous line. The mosaic shows the architecture of early Roman Chriatian Basilicas. Inv 3676, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Geometric Roman mosaics, Eastern Mediterranean, 4th century AD. The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Church with Towers, Eastern Mediterranean, 5th century AD. The church has three naves and is represented in a 'flattened Perspective’ as can be seen by the facade and along sides forming a straight continuous line. The mosaic shows the architecture of early Roman Chriatian Basilicas. Inv 3676, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Church with Towers, Eastern Mediterranean, 5th century AD. The church has three naves and is represented in a 'flattened Perspective’ as can be seen by the facade and along sides forming a straight continuous line. The mosaic shows the architecture of early Roman Chriatian Basilicas. Inv 3676, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Church with Towers, Eastern Mediterranean, 5th century AD. The church has three naves and is represented in a 'flattened Perspective’ as can be seen by the facade and along sides forming a straight continuous line. The mosaic shows the architecture of early Roman Chriatian Basilicas. Inv 3676, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of an Amazon on horseback fighting, From Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, Antakya, Turkey, 4th century AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. The mosaic depicts the legendary woman warriors known as the Amazons, who fought with one breast showing, fighting a soldier with armour. inv 3463, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of the inside of a church, Eastern Mediterranean, 5th century AD. This abstract representation of a church choir shows two columns, a low lattice  divider and a pair of oriental designed curtains at the top. beyond is the inner sanctum of the church with a Mandorla surrounded by flames with a cross in it. In the foreground is a a hare and devouring a bunch of grapes next to Greek letter that translate to 'Christ rescues'. Inv 5093, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Church with Towers, Eastern Mediterranean, 5th century AD. The church has three naves and is represented in a 'flattened Perspective’ as can be seen by the facade and along sides forming a straight continuous line. The mosaic shows the architecture of early Roman Chriatian Basilicas. Inv 3676, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Hebrew, possibly from North Syria 5th-6th century AD J-C. dressed in Oriental clothing, that young man is identified by writing in Syriac has the right to his head: it tells of three Hebrews miraculously surviving after being thrown into a fire for refusing to worship the image of Nebuchadnezzar. This is biblical episode is from the Book Daniel (3 1-30), and is commonly illustrated in the East as in the West. Inv 3671, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of two Gazelles facing inwards either side of a vase, Eastern Mediterranean, the beginning of the 6th century AD. The mosaic design is typical of  church  floors in front of the choir. The choice of gazelles is rare though and indicates a local flavour to the content. Inv 3673, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of an Amazon on horseback fighting, From Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, Antakya, Turkey, 4th century AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. The mosaic depicts the legendary woman warriors known as the Amazons, who fought with one breast showing, fighting a soldier with armour. inv 3463, The Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Phoenix, From Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, Antakya, Turkey, 6th century AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. The phoenix is a mythical bird associated with the sun. A phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. The phoenix was subsequently adopted as a symbol in Early Christianity.In the mosaic it is perched rock above a background of rose buds and is bordered by a pair of facing rams. inv 3342, restored in 1936 by the Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Phoenix, From Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, Antakya, Turkey, 6th century AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. The phoenix is a mythical bird associated with the sun. A phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. The phoenix was subsequently adopted as a symbol in Early Christianity.In the mosaic it is perched rock above a background of rose buds and is bordered by a pair of facing rams. inv 3342, restored in 1936 by the Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Phoenix, From Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, Antakya, Turkey, 6th century AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. The phoenix is a mythical bird associated with the sun. A phoenix obtains new life by arising from the ashes of its predecessor. The phoenix was subsequently adopted as a symbol in Early Christianity.In the mosaic it is perched rock above a background of rose buds and is bordered by a pair of facing rams. inv 3342, restored in 1936 by the Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of an early Christian church floor from Qabr Hiram, Lebanon, 575 AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. This mosaic was designed to follow the layout of the church which had three naves. It depicts God through images of his creation: rural activities, fruit, animals with representations of the months, seasons and winds. The inscription indicates that the basilica was dedicated to St. Christopher and was built in 575 AD.. Inv 32230-2236, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of an early Christian church floor from Qabr Hiram, Lebanon, 575 AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. This mosaic was designed to follow the layout of the church which had three naves. It depicts God through images of his creation: rural activities, fruit, animals with representations of the months, seasons and winds. The inscription indicates that the basilica was dedicated to St. Christopher and was built in 575 AD.. Inv 32230-2236, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of an early Christian church floor from Qabr Hiram, Lebanon, 575 AD. Marble blocks and glass paste cubes. This mosaic was designed to follow the layout of the church which had three naves. It depicts God through images of his creation: rural activities, fruit, animals with representations of the months, seasons and winds. The inscription indicates that the basilica was dedicated to St. Christopher and was built in 575 AD.. Inv 32230-2236, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of an early Christian Basilica from the Eastern Mediterranean, late 5th century AD. Marble blocks, limestone, sandstone and terracotta. The church has three naves and is represented in a 'flattened Perspective’ as can be seen by the facade and along sides forming a straight continuous line. The side wall is deliberately open to make the interior visible . Inv 3677, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a Young boy playing with snakes, possibly an early Christian mosaic. Syria or Lebanon, 5th century AD. Cubes of marble and limestone. Dressed in a long tunic, the child playing with two snakes could be illustrating a passage from the Book of Isai (11.6 to 8). This fragmented mosaic panel once continued in upper part, as indicated by the animal hoofs, and to the right of the mosaic are remains of a Greek inscription. inv 5094. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Eastern Mediterranean Roman mosaics of Animals, late 5th - 6th century. Marble cubes, and limestone. Three animals are in the race, a dog, a lion and a pheasant. They belonged perhaps to a hunting scene which was a popular floor decoration in houses or they may illustrate the biblical theme of 'Peace of animals', found on the floors of the churches of the Eastern Roman provinces. inv 3672, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Eastern Mediterranean Roman mosaics of Animals, late 5th - 6th century. Marble cubes, and limestone. Three animals are in the race, a dog, a lion and a pheasant. They belonged perhaps to a hunting scene which was a popular floor decoration in houses or they may illustrate the biblical theme of 'Peace of animals', found on the floors of the churches of the Eastern Roman provinces. inv 3672, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Eastern Mediterranean Roman mosaics of Animals, late 5th - 6th century. Marble cubes, and limestone. Three animals are in the race, a dog, a lion and a pheasant. They belonged perhaps to a hunting scene which was a popular floor decoration in houses or they may illustrate the biblical theme of 'Peace of animals', found on the floors of the churches of the Eastern Roman provinces. inv 3672, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Eastern Mediterranean Roman mosaics of Animals, late 5th - 6th century. Marble cubes, and limestone. Three animals are in the race, a dog, a lion and a pheasant. They belonged perhaps to a hunting scene which was a popular floor decoration in houses or they may illustrate the biblical theme of 'Peace of animals', found on the floors of the churches of the Eastern Roman provinces. inv 3672, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Birds around a  vase From Daphne, a suburb of Antioch, Antakya, Turkey, 1st half of 3rd century AD. Marble cubes, limestone and glass. A border of geometric perspective cubes surround a scene with one bird sitting on the vase of Daphne whilst the other surround it. The naturalistic skill of the Roman Antioch mosaic artists is so good that it is possible to tell the species of each bird. inv 3461, Louvre Museum, Paris
  • 4th Century Byzantine Christian chapel next to the 3rd cent. B.C Temple of Artimis. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.

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