• Close of candle burning in a pewter candle stick
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Picture and image of the stone sculpture of a young women filling a candle stick with oil in an art Nouveau style. Family Tomb Montanari sculpted by G B Villa 1888. Section D no 31 the monumental tombs of the Staglieno Monumental Cemetery, Genoa, Italy
  • Picture and image of the stone sculpture of a young women filling a candle stick with oil in an art Nouveau style. Family Tomb Montanari sculpted by G B Villa 1888. Section D no 31 the monumental tombs of the Staglieno Monumental Cemetery, Genoa, Italy
  • Picture and image of the stone sculpture of a young women filling a candle stick with oil in an art Nouveau style. Family Tomb Montanari sculpted by G B Villa 1888. Section D no 31 the monumental tombs of the Staglieno Monumental Cemetery, Genoa, Italy
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Pictures of an apse Roman mosaics design depicting a peacock spreading its tail feathers between two winged angels or cupids holding long candle sticks, from the Maison du Paon in the ancient Roman city of Thysdrus. 3rd century AD. El Djem Archaeological Museum, El Djem, Tunisia.
  • Pictures of an apse Roman mosaics design depicting a peacock spreading its tail feathers between two winged angels or cupids holding long candle sticks, from the Maison du Paon in the ancient Roman city of Thysdrus. 3rd century AD. El Djem Archaeological Museum, El Djem, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Fifth century AD Roman Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 5th century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of Crescentia from Tharbarka western Necropolis in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The funerary portrait depicts a young girl, Crescentia, dressed in a dalmatic tunic with vertical stripes, pulled in at the waist by a belt , with a necklace around her neck. Today the dalmatic is a long wide-sleeved tunic, which still serves as a liturgical vestment in the Roman Catholic church. To the right side of Crescentia is a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Baroque entrance to the old Gothic Jewish Sinagogue (Alt Synagoge) with the unusual 9 candle stand - Sopron, Hungary
  • Pictures of an apse Roman mosaics design depicting a peacock spreading its tail feathers between two winged angels or cupids holding long candle sticks, from the Maison du Paon in the ancient Roman city of Thysdrus. 3rd century AD. El Djem Archaeological Museum, El Djem, Tunisia.
  • Pictures of an apse Roman mosaics design depicting a peacock spreading its tail feathers between two winged angels or cupids holding long candle sticks, from the Maison du Paon in the ancient Roman city of Thysdrus. 3rd century AD. El Djem Archaeological Museum, El Djem, Tunisia.
  • Pictures of an apse Roman mosaics design depicting a peacock spreading its tail feathers between two winged angels or cupids holding long candle sticks, from the Maison du Paon in the ancient Roman city of Thysdrus. 3rd century AD. El Djem Archaeological Museum, El Djem, Tunisia.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Eastern Roman Byzantine walk in baptismal font from the 6th century AD Parish Church of Demna near Kalibia, Cape Bon, Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The baptismal font was removed from the church and restored in the Bardo Museum Tunis in 1955. <br />
<br />
The mosaic iconographic decorations represent the salvation of the neophyte, newcomer, who by being baptised is admitted into the Church of Christ whilst being illuminated by faith, represented the mosaic lit candle illustrations.<br />
<br />
The P with a cross through it is the Chi Rho, a Christian symbol which represent the first two letters of Jesus Christ's name in Greek. The Christogram also has the Greek letters Alpha and Omega which represent the passage from the book of revelations: “I am the Alpha and Omega" Chapter 1 verse 8, which is clarified by "the beginning and the end" (Revelation 21:6, 22:13). <br />
<br />
In these type of baptismal fonts those being baptised would have been fully immersed in water as John the Baptist immersed Jesus. <br />
<br />
The font was paid for by donation by Iuliana and Aquinius who dedicated the font to St Cyprian, the martyed Bishop of Carthage, circa 258,  and the author of a treatise on baptism rites<br />
<br />
The Bardo Museum Tunis
  • Baroque entrance to the old Gothic Jewish Sinagogue (Alt Synagoge) with the unusual 9 candle stand - Sopron, Hungary
  • Detail of a fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine   funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. White background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. White background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Grey background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Crescentia. <br />
Above the funerary portrait of Crescentia are the words: ‘Crescentia, innocent and in Peace’. Crescentia is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, with a belt around the waiste and a neclace around her neck. Lit candles represent eternal life. 5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. White background
  • The Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine memorial funerary mosaic for Felicitas and Victoria. <br />
<br />
A mosaic depiction of a female decorates the grave of  Felicitas and Victoria which bears their inscription and that they departed in peace. Lit candles representing eturnal life and birds are also depicted on the funerary panel.<br />
<br />
5th century AD from the western necropolis of Thabraca, Tabarka, Tunisia, Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Grey background
  • The Christian memorial funerary mosaic for Natalica the inscription reading: ‘(our) beloved daughter Natalica lived 10 years 8 months 21 days, rested the 8th Ides of October (23rd) ’.<br />
<br />
The panel is decorated with a crescent laurel leaves against a black background and a cross encircling the head of a depiction of Natalica. She is wearing earnings and is dressed in a dalmatic, a long wide-sleeved tunic, which is decorated with black clavi, stripes, and embroidered sleeves. A belt and buckle with cabochons, shaped and polished gem stones, hold the tunic tight at the waste.  Either side of t Natalica are two lit candles, the symbols of eternity.<br />
<br />
5th century Eastern Byzantine Roman mosaic from the funerary enclosure which is in the Northwest enclosure of the Acholla site, Tunisia. Bardo Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Black background
  • Candles in the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Chartres, France. . A UNESCO World Heritage Site.

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