• A Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii form the venereum, a room for sexual activities, of Casa di Cecilio Giocondo 50-79 AD  , inv no 10569 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • A satyr caressing a maiden a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii 1st cent AD , from the Casa di L Cecilio Giocondo, inv no 110590 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples Archaeological Museum
  • A satyr caressing a maiden a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii 1st cent AD , from the Casa di L Cecilio Giocondo, inv no 110590 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples Archaeological Museum
  • A satyr caressing a maiden a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii 1st cent AD , from the Casa di L Cecilio Giocondo, inv no 110590 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples Archaeological Museum
  • Satyr surprising a maiden, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , inv no 27693 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Roman Erotic Fresco from Pompeii, 1st cent AD , workshop Banner showing Mercury with a massive phalus , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Satyr being rejected by Hermaphrodite, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , inv no 110878 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Pan and  Hermaphrodite, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , inv no 27700 , Naples National Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Archaeological Museum
  • Satyr caressing Hermaphrodite, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , from the tablium of the Casa di Epidio Sabino, inv no 27875 ,Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Roman Erotic Fresco from Pompeii, 1st cent AD , workshop Banner showing Mercury with a massive phalus , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Roman erotic fresco painting of Hermaphrodite from Heraculeum, 1-50 AD , inv no 9224 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Polyphemus caressing Galatea, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , from the Casa dei Capitelli colorati, inv no 27687 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Mars caressing Venus  a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii 1st cent AD , from the Casa del Meleagro, inv no 9250 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • A Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii form a private house venereum, a room for sexual activities, 50-79 AD , , inv no 27696 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Mars caressing Venus  a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii 1st cent AD , from the Casa del Meleagro, inv no 9250 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Polyphemus caressing Galatea, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , from the Casa dei Capitelli colorati, inv no 27687 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Satyr caressing Hermaphrodite, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , from the tablium of the Casa di Epidio Sabino, inv no 27875 ,Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Satyr caressing Hermaphrodite, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , from the tablium of the Casa di Epidio Sabino, inv no 27875 ,Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Satyr being rejected by Hermaphrodite, a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii, 50-79 AD , inv no 110878 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Mythical Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum inv no: 110590
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco depicting Mars and Venus  Pompeii (VI, 9, 2,) Casa die Meleagro, inv 9250, 1st century AD, Naples Archaological Museum , Italy
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco depicting Mars and Venus  Pompeii (VI, 9, 2,) Casa die Meleagro, inv 9250, 1st century AD, Naples Archaological Museum , Italy
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco depicting Mars and Venus  Pompeii (VI, 9, 2,) Casa die Meleagro, inv 9250, 1st century AD, Naples Archaological Museum , Italy
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic fresco depicting Pan and Hermaphrodite, Pompeii (VI, 9, 6,) Casa die Dioscuri, inv 27700, 1-50 AD, Naples Archaological Museum, Italy
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic fresco depicting Pan and Hermaphrodite, Pompeii (VI, 9, 6,) Casa die Dioscuri, inv 27700, 1-50 AD, Naples Archaological Museum, Italy
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic Mosaic from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic Mosaic from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco depicting Mars and Venus  Pompeii (VI, 9, 2,) Casa die Meleagro, inv 9250, 1st century AD, Naples Archaological Museum , Italy
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic fresco depicting Pan and Hermaphrodite, Pompeii (VI, 9, 6,) Casa die Dioscuri, inv 27700, 1-50 AD, Naples Archaological Museum, Italy
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic Mosaic from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  Mythical fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum inv no: 110590
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco of a man & woman having sex  from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum inv no: 27696
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco of a man & woman having sex  from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum inv no: 27696
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum inv no 27875
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  Mythical fresco  from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum  inv no: 27697
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco of a man & woman having sex  from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum inv no: 27686
  • "Pan & Goat" Roman Mythical erotic sculpture from Pompeii. Naples Archaeological inv no: 27709
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • Roman Erotic  fresco with pigmies from Csa Detto del Medico Peristyle in Pompeii. 50-97 AD, Naples Archaological Museum inv no: 113196
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Mythical Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum inv no: 110590
  • Workshop Banner showing Mercury with a massive phalus. Erotic Fresco from Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Museum 1st cent AD
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  Mythical fresco  from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum  inv no: 27697
  • Roman Mosaic of Satyr and Ninfa from the Casa del Fauno (House of the Faun) Pompeii, inv 27707 , Naples National Archaeological Museum , white background
  • Roman Mosaic of Satyr and Ninfa from the Casa del Fauno (House of the Faun) Pompeii, inv 27707 , Naples National Archaeological Museum , black background
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a scene from Meanders comedy Theophoroumene(the passed girl) with musical hawkers by Dioscurides of Samos. Pompeii from the so-called Villa of Cicero, Inv 9985, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman fresco wall painting of Ariadne fast asleep on a bed of seaweed does not realise that Theseus is about to abandon her and sailaway on a ship to Athens, Pompeii House of colored Capitals, VII,31-51, inv 9052 , Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Opus Sectile Roman of a Dionysian scene, Pompeii, inv 9979 , Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Opus Sectile Roman Venus loosing a sandal, Pompeii, inv 2109678 , Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Roman Mosaic of Satyr and Ninfa from the Casa del Fauno (House of the Faun) Pompeii, inv 27707 , Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey art background
  • Roman Mosaic of Satyr and Ninfa from the Casa del Fauno (House of the Faun) Pompeii, inv 27707 , Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey background
  • Roman Mosaic of Satyr and Ninfa from the Casa del Fauno (House of the Faun) Pompeii, inv 27707 , Naples National Archaeological Museum ,  art background
  • Roman Mosaic with the head of Medusa , Naples National Archaeological Museum ,
  • Roman Mosaic with the head of Medusa, from Casa delle Vestali, Pompeii , Naples National Archaeological Museum , white background
  • Roman Mosaic with the head of Medusa, from Casa delle Vestali, Pompeii , Naples National Archaeological Museum ,  art background
  • Roman Mosaic with the head of Medusa, from Casa delle Vestali, Pompeii , Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey background
  • Roman Mosaic with the head of Medusa, from Casa delle Vestali, Pompeii , Naples National Archaeological Museum , black background
  • Roman Mosaic with the head of Medusa, from Casa delle Vestali, Pompeii , Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey art background
  • Alexander the Great from the Roman mosaic  of Battle beween Alexander the Great and Persian King Darius, 120-125 BC, Casa del Fauno, Pompeii, inv 10020, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • King Darius from the Roman mosaic  of Battle beween Alexander the Great and Persian King Darius, 120-125 BC, Casa del Fauno, Pompeii, inv 10020, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • King Darius from the Roman mosaic  of Battle beween Alexander the Great and Persian King Darius, 120-125 BC, Casa del Fauno, Pompeii, inv 10020, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Roman mosaic of Pan and Hamadryad, a Greek mythological being that lives in trees , found in Pompeii, from the Farnese Collection, inv no 227708, Naples Archaeological Museum
  • Erotic Roman Mosaic of Pigmies in boats fornicating on the River Nile from Rome, inv 122861,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey background
  • Erotic Roman Mosaic of Pigmies in boats fornicating on the River Nile from Rome, inv 122861,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey background
  • Erotic Roman Mosaic of Pigmies in boats fornicating on the River Nile from Rome, inv 122861,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , white background
  • Erotic Roman Mosaic of Pigmies in boats fornicating on the River Nile from Rome, inv 122861,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey background
  • Erotic Roman Mosaic of Pigmies in boats fornicating on the River Nile from Rome, inv 122861,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , black background
  • Erotic Roman Mosaic of Pigmies in boats fornicating on the River Nile from Rome, inv 122861,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , art background
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, Black background
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum,  Art background
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, Grey Art background
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, Grey  background
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, White background
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Pictures of Roman Mosaics of a Lion Dionysus and Manadi from the Casa del Centauro (VI 9, 3) Pompeii, inv 10019, Naples Archaeological Museum - Stock Photos
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a Lion from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Roman Mosaic portrait of a women from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 124666
  • Roman Mosaic portrait of a Cockerall Fight  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic fresco depicting Pan and Hermaphrodite, Pompeii (VI, 9, 6,) Casa die Dioscuri, inv 27700, 1-50 AD, Naples Archaological Museum, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of a Child and Goose - a 1st or 2nd century Roman sculpture from Villa des Quintilii on the Appia Way south of Rome, Italy. Three other similar versions of this Roman sculpture can be found in the Vatican, music and Geneva. The sculpture is attributed to Boethos who was a 2nd century sculptor.  The Braschi Collection, Inv No. MR168 (Usual No Ma 40), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of a Statue of  Atalanta a 2nd century Roman sculpture restored in the 17th century. Atalanta  is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.. The Mazarin Collection  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095,  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of an Amazon on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6407, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor  Claudius 41-54 AD, inv 6068, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of end of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Harmodius  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6009, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Second century Roman Christian funerary stele for 3 dead people from Africa Proconsularis. The stele depicts the deceased:  Fausata who died age 75, a man who died age 70 and a child who died age 2 years 6 months. From the first half of the second century AD from the region of Bou Arada in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Second century Roman Christian funerary stele for 3 dead people from Africa Proconsularis. The stele depicts the deceased:  Fausata who died age 75, a man who died age 70 and a child who died age 2 years 6 months. From the first half of the second century AD from the region of Bou Arada in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Second century Roman funerary stele dedicated to Anninia Laeta from the cemetery of Thuburbo Majus a city of the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum , Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic from Leptis Minus-Lemto in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sehel Region) dedicated to Cresconius, depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
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In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom B  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
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The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
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This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
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The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
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 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco detail of fishes marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .   <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .    Against a grey background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  Against a white background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  Against a black background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Painted Domestic Pine in the Roman fresco of a garden from Villa Livia (Early first century AD), Rome, Livia was the wife of Roman emperor Augustus.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
Trees and shrubs had symbolic importance to the Romans as can be see by the plants used in the trompe-l’œil frescoes from the Villa Livia, Rome, which contains plants linked to the deities particularily venerated by Augustus and Livia. <br />
<br />
Domestic pine: present in the mystery rites of Cybele, Attis and Dionysus. Laurel: sacred to Apollo, symbol of triumph, it recalls the famous prodigy associated with Livia Drusilla.
  • Painted Domestic Pine in the Roman fresco of a garden from Villa Livia (Early first century AD), Rome, Livia was the wife of Roman emperor Augustus.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
Trees and shrubs had symbolic importance to the Romans as can be see by the plants used in the trompe-l’œil frescoes from the Villa Livia, Rome, which contains plants linked to the deities particularily venerated by Augustus and Livia. <br />
<br />
Domestic pine: present in the mystery rites of Cybele, Attis and Dionysus. Laurel: sacred to Apollo, symbol of triumph, it recalls the famous prodigy associated with Livia Drusilla.
  • The celebrated Greek statue known as 'The Belvedere Torso', possibly of Greek hero Ajax, signed by Athenian neo-Attic sculptor Apollonios, ist century BC, inv 1192, Pope Clement collection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • , Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Roman ststue of Apollo with a lyre, copied from an earlier 4th cebtury BC Hellenistic statue, from a group of Muses found in Villa de Cassius at Tivoli,  inv 310, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Second century AD Roman statue of Urania holding, the muse of atronomy holding  a globe, the statue was restored from two separte staues of the period, inv 293, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey background
  • 1st century AD Roman statue of Silenus pouring wine from a jug. The head is from the Flavian period and the body 1st century. A copy of an earlier Hwellenistic sculpture by the school of Lysippus, inv 323, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  art background
  • Full length frontal view of 2nd - 1st century BC Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Marine Venus' Type with a dolphin, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6296, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey art background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • Roman Bronze sculpture bust known as 'Sylla" from the tablinum of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • Erotic 5th cnetury BC attica style anfora of two men, black against an potrange background, Caolina Murat Collection inv no 27670, Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey art background
  • Erotic bronze oil lamp configured as a dancing midget, found in Pompeii,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples Archaeological Museum , art background
  • Erotic attica style krater with red figures made in Saticula; present day Sant'Agata de' Goti produczione capuana; attributed to Painter Parrish around 350 B.C, inv 81926,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , grey art background
  • Roman oil lamp black-painted with winged phallus, inv no 27867,Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum ,white background
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of a the deportation of the Babylonians. From the palace of Ashurnasirpal II  , Niniveh, circa 645 BC. inv 19911  Louvre Museum , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of cedar of Lebanon being transported. From the northern courtyard,  Inv AO 19889 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of a terrapin. From the northern courtyard,  Inv AO 19890 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with roses and flowers, from the Pietra Papa area near the Flavian Gate, Rome. 125-150 BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran. Susa was one of the residential cityes of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes. Inv Ab3312-21, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Gypsum, schist, shells and lapis lazuli statue of Ebih-Il, early Dynastic; Shakkanakku (military governor) of the ancient city-state of Mari in present day eastern Syria, dating from circa 2340 BC or from the Akkadian period of rule Circa 2250 BC.. The statue carries a cuneiform inscription in Akkadian. Excavated from; the temple of Ishtar at Mari by André Parrot in 1934-1935 the statue measures; 52.5 cm (20.7 in) high; 20.6 cm (8.1 in) wide and 30 cm (11.8 in) deep. Department of Oriental Antiquities; Richelieu; ground floor; room 1b; inv AO 17551; Louvre Museum; Paris
  • Stone statue of a winged bull. Reproduction from the facade of the throne room,  Inv AO 30043 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of soldiers carrying a war chariot . Facade L. Inv AO 19884 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of a man. From the facade of the throne room,  Inv AO 19917 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of a Royal servant. From the palace of Teglat-phalasar II, Nimrud, third quarter of the 8th century BC. inv 19852  Louvre Museum , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of two servants. Facade L. Inv AO 19879 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone statue of a winged bull. Reproduction from the facade of the throne room,  Inv AO 30043 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus) of the Venus Felix Type , copied from a  2nd to 1st century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6300, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus) of the Venus Felix Type , copied from a  2nd to 1st century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6300 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Stone statue of a Hero holding a lion. From facade M of the palace courtyard ,  Inv AO 19861 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6293, Farnese Collection - Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of a man. From the facade of the throne room,  Inv AO 19917 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of a Hero holding a lion. From the facade of the throne room,  Inv AO 19862 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of a Genie with poppy seed heads next ro the tree of life.  Inv AO 19869 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • . Room 4 - Ancient Meopotania 713-706 BC, Assyria, Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad.  Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of Saron II and a dignitary. Facade L. Inv AO 19873-4 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • Stone relief sculptured panel of two servants. Facade L. Inv AO 19879 from Dur Sharrukin the palace of Assyrian king Sargon II at Khorsabad, 713-706 BC.  Louvre Museum Room 4 , Paris
  • A tiger hunting from the 3rd century Roman mosaic villa floor from Lod, near Tel Aviv, Israel. The Roman floor mosaic of Lod is the largest and best preserved mosaic floor from the levant region along the eastern Mediterranean coast. It is unclear whether the owners were Jewish, Christian or pagan but either way they would have been wealthy to own such a magnificent floor. The Shelby White and Leon Levy Lod Mosaic Centre, Lod, Israel.
  • African animals and fish from the 3rd century Roman mosaic villa floor from Lod, near Tel Aviv, Israel. The Roman floor mosaic of Lod is the largest and best preserved mosaic floor from the levant region along the eastern Mediterranean coast. It is unclear whether the owners were Jewish, Christian or pagan but either way they would have been wealthy to own such a magnificent floor. The Shelby White and Leon Levy Lod Mosaic Centre, Lod, Israel.
  • African animals and fish from the 3rd century Roman mosaic villa floor from Lod, near Tel Aviv, Israel. The Roman floor mosaic of Lod is the largest and best preserved mosaic floor from the levant region along the eastern Mediterranean coast. It is unclear whether the owners were Jewish, Christian or pagan but either way they would have been wealthy to own such a magnificent floor. The Shelby White and Leon Levy Lod Mosaic Centre, Lod, Israel.
  • Fish from the 3rd century Roman mosaic villa floor from Lod, near Tel Aviv, Israel. The Roman floor mosaic of Lod is the largest and best preserved mosaic floor from the levant region along the eastern Mediterranean coast. It is unclear whether the owners were Jewish, Christian or pagan but either way they would have been wealthy to own such a magnificent floor. The Shelby White and Leon Levy Lod Mosaic Centre, Lod, Israel.
  • Roman floor mosaic of a tragic actors mask from the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. End of 1st and beginning of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Green Faction Charioteer and his horse from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy

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