• Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian Hammurabi stone relief sculpture. Hammurabi was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon from 1792 BC to 1750 BC . Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panel depicting striding lions from Babylon (Iraq). Neo-Babylonian Period, reign of Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562 BC. This panel belonged to the tiled decorated walls either side of the Processional Way in Babylon which was 3280 ft (1km) long. It led from the temple of Marduk, through the Ishtar Gate to the temple of Akitu. The lion is the is associated with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar. T processional Way played a key role in the  New Year festival which was held in the spring equinox. Babylonian Gods were believed to leave their temples on this day and visit the god Marduk in his temple in Babylon. Kings like Nebuchanezzar would have played an important role in this procession and they aside their regal regalia for the procession and recited “negative confessions” as they preceded down the Processional way. Inv Ao 21118, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panel depicting striding lions from Babylon (Iraq). Neo-Babylonian Period, reign of Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562 BC. This panel belonged to the tiled decorated walls either side of the Processional Way in Babylon which was 3280 ft (1km) long. It led from the temple of Marduk, through the Ishtar Gate to the temple of Akitu. The lion is the is associated with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar. T processional Way played a key role in the  New Year festival which was held in the spring equinox. Babylonian Gods were believed to leave their temples on this day and visit the god Marduk in his temple in Babylon. Kings like Nebuchanezzar would have played an important role in this procession and they aside their regal regalia for the procession and recited “negative confessions” as they preceded down the Processional way. Inv Ao 21118, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian Hammurabi stone relief sculpture. Hammurabi was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon from 1792 BC to 1750 BC . Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian Hammurabi stone relief sculpture. Hammurabi was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon from 1792 BC to 1750 BC . Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture usurped by an Elamite king. 12th cent. BC from Suse. Inv AO 30043, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture reporting the spoils of war, 12th cent.BC. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Babylonian Hammurabi stone relief sculpture. Hammurabi was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon from 1792 BC to 1750 BC . Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panel depicting striding lions from Babylon (Iraq). Neo-Babylonian Period, reign of Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562 BC. This panel belonged to the tiled decorated walls either side of the Processional Way in Babylon which was 3280 ft (1km) long. It led from the temple of Marduk, through the Ishtar Gate to the temple of Akitu. The lion is the is associated with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar. T processional Way played a key role in the  New Year festival which was held in the spring equinox. Babylonian Gods were believed to leave their temples on this day and visit the god Marduk in his temple in Babylon. Kings like Nebuchanezzar would have played an important role in this procession and they aside their regal regalia for the procession and recited “negative confessions” as they preceded down the Processional way. Inv Ao 21118, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture usurped by an Elamite king. 12th cent. BC from Suse. Inv AO 30043, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture reporting the spoils of war, 12th cent.BC. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture usurped by an Elamite king. 12th cent. BC from Suse. Inv AO 30043, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture reporting the spoils of war, 12th cent.BC. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture reporting the spoils of war, 12th cent.BC. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panel depicting striding lions from Babylon (Iraq). Neo-Babylonian Period, reign of Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562 BC. This panel belonged to the tiled decorated walls either side of the Processional Way in Babylon which was 3280 ft (1km) long. It led from the temple of Marduk, through the Ishtar Gate to the temple of Akitu. The lion is the is associated with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar. T processional Way played a key role in the  New Year festival which was held in the spring equinox. Babylonian Gods were believed to leave their temples on this day and visit the god Marduk in his temple in Babylon. Kings like Nebuchanezzar would have played an important role in this procession and they aside their regal regalia for the procession and recited “negative confessions” as they preceded down the Processional way. Inv Ao 21118, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Babylonian Hammurabi stone relief sculpture. Hammurabi was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon from 1792 BC to 1750 BC . Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture usurped by an Elamite king. 12th cent. BC from Suse. Inv AO 30043, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panel depicting striding lions from Babylon (Iraq). Neo-Babylonian Period, reign of Nebuchadnezzar II 604-562 BC. This panel belonged to the tiled decorated walls either side of the Processional Way in Babylon which was 3280 ft (1km) long. It led from the temple of Marduk, through the Ishtar Gate to the temple of Akitu. The lion is the is associated with the Babylonian goddess Ishtar. T processional Way played a key role in the  New Year festival which was held in the spring equinox. Babylonian Gods were believed to leave their temples on this day and visit the god Marduk in his temple in Babylon. Kings like Nebuchanezzar would have played an important role in this procession and they aside their regal regalia for the procession and recited “negative confessions” as they preceded down the Processional way. Inv Ao 21118, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture reporting the spoils of war, 12th cent.BC. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture usurped by an Elamite king. 12th cent. BC from Suse. Inv AO 30043, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from   The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a deer from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a chickens from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decoration frangmet from a Villa alongside the Tiber, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decoration frangmet from a Villa alongside the Tiber, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decoration frangmet from a Rome Villa, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Bedroom B, the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom B  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom B  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Balnea Baths, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Balnea Baths, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Balnea Baths, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Balnea Baths, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Vestibule of a Rome Villa, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
A large fresco covered the curving wall of the vestibule E 5 was positioned at the entrance of the house onto the street. Vitruvius claims that the vestibulum was a room which was not needed by common people, but which was essential in a house worthy of respect, because it served to welcome guests and the people who came to be received by the owners of the house. The frescoed decoration of this wall, which was entirely detached, shows a division into panels, architectural perspectives and pavilions among which are figures and decorative elements, above a band of skirting. Numerous panels have been detached from the corridor E 3 E 11 which connected all the areas of the house, but it has not been possible to reconstruct the sequence of the walls. Inside the frames, against a white background, different decorative elements are arranged, along with hanging female and male figures, hippogriffs and other fantastical animals, vases, garlands and vegetation.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Vestibule of a Rome Villa, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
A large fresco covered the curving wall of the vestibule E 5 was positioned at the entrance of the house onto the street. Vitruvius claims that the vestibulum was a room which was not needed by common people, but which was essential in a house worthy of respect, because it served to welcome guests and the people who came to be received by the owners of the house. The frescoed decoration of this wall, which was entirely detached, shows a division into panels, architectural perspectives and pavilions among which are figures and decorative elements, above a band of skirting. Numerous panels have been detached from the corridor E 3 E 11 which connected all the areas of the house, but it has not been possible to reconstruct the sequence of the walls. Inside the frames, against a white background, different decorative elements are arranged, along with hanging female and male figures, hippogriffs and other fantastical animals, vases, garlands and vegetation.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Vestibule of a Rome Villa, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
A large fresco covered the curving wall of the vestibule E 5 was positioned at the entrance of the house onto the street. Vitruvius claims that the vestibulum was a room which was not needed by common people, but which was essential in a house worthy of respect, because it served to welcome guests and the people who came to be received by the owners of the house. The frescoed decoration of this wall, which was entirely detached, shows a division into panels, architectural perspectives and pavilions among which are figures and decorative elements, above a band of skirting. Numerous panels have been detached from the corridor E 3 E 11 which connected all the areas of the house, but it has not been possible to reconstruct the sequence of the walls. Inside the frames, against a white background, different decorative elements are arranged, along with hanging female and male figures, hippogriffs and other fantastical animals, vases, garlands and vegetation.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman Geometric  Swastica mosaic decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a symposium exotic bird from   The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco of a man from the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of fruit bird from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a fruit from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman Fresco of a hippo bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome depicting Pegasus. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.  <br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.  <br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .   <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco detail of fishes marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .
  • Roman Fresco detail of fishes marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .   Against a white background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .   <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).

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