• The arabesque architecture of the Museum of Arts and Traditions in America square, Seville Spain
  • The arabesque architecture of the Museum of Arts and Traditions in America square, Seville Spain
  • The arabesque architecture of the Museum of Arts and Traditions in America square, Seville Spain
  • The arabesque architecture of the Museum of Arts and Traditions in America square, Seville Spain
  • The arabesque architecture of the Museum of Arts and Traditions in America square, Seville Spain
  • The arabesque architecture of the Museum of Arts and Traditions in America square, Seville Spain
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation  by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation  by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation  by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation  by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Annunciation and Three Kings of the Epiphany by the Circle of Ferrer and Arnau Bassa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1347-1360. 282.9 x 151 x 11 cm. The origin of this panel has traditionally been associated with the collegiate church of Sant Vicenç de Cardona (Bages). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 015855-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Gothic painted Altar frontal of Saint Christopher by Master of Soriguerola. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. Beginning of 14th century. 134 x 193 x 8.3 cm. The traditional hypothesis is that it could have come from the parish church of Sant Cristòfol de Toses (Ripollès), as the titular saint coincides with the church's dedication.. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 015825-000
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
<br />
Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
<br />
<br />
The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Gothic altarpiece dedicated to St Vincent by Bernat Martorell circa 1483-1440 in Barcelona, tempera and gold lef on wood from the Parish church of St Vincent of menarguens, Noguera, Spain. At the top of the central panels of the altar tryptic, replacing the traditional Calvery scene, can be seen in the centre the Virgin of Mercy and kneeling to the left is Sant Benet de Bages, in black, and to the right St. Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint of thr Benedictine and Cistercian orders . Below this is a depiction of St Vincent and either side are scenes of the Mardom of Vincent. Along the bottom are scenes from the Passion of Christ, with Judas in a yellow tunic kissing Christ and a furious Peter cutting off the ear of Malcus. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain, inv 15797. Against a art background.
  • Gothic altarpiece dedicated to St Vincent by Bernat Martorell circa 1483-1440 in Barcelona, tempera and gold lef on wood from the Parish church of St Vincent of menarguens, Noguera, Spain. At the top of the central panels of the altar tryptic, replacing the traditional Calvery scene, can be seen in the centre the Virgin of Mercy and kneeling to the left is Sant Benet de Bages, in black, and to the right St. Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint of thr Benedictine and Cistercian orders . Below this is a depiction of St Vincent and either side are scenes of the Mardom of Vincent. Along the bottom are scenes from the Passion of Christ, with Judas in a yellow tunic kissing Christ and a furious Peter cutting off the ear of Malcus. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain, inv 15797, Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Gothic altarpiece dedicated to St Vincent by Bernat Martorell circa 1483-1440 in Barcelona, tempera and gold lef on wood from the Parish church of St Vincent of menarguens, Noguera, Spain. At the top of the central panels of the altar tryptic, replacing the traditional Calvery scene, can be seen in the centre the Virgin of Mercy and kneeling to the left is Sant Benet de Bages, in black, and to the right St. Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint of thr Benedictine and Cistercian orders . Below this is a depiction of St Vincent and either side are scenes of the Mardom of Vincent. Along the bottom are scenes from the Passion of Christ, with Judas in a yellow tunic kissing Christ and a furious Peter cutting off the ear of Malcus. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain, inv 15797. Against a white background.
  • Gothic altarpiece dedicated to St Vincent by Bernat Martorell circa 1483-1440 in Barcelona, tempera and gold lef on wood from the Parish church of St Vincent of menarguens, Noguera, Spain. At the top of the central panels of the altar tryptic, replacing the traditional Calvery scene, can be seen in the centre the Virgin of Mercy and kneeling to the left is Sant Benet de Bages, in black, and to the right St. Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint of thr Benedictine and Cistercian orders . Below this is a depiction of St Vincent and either side are scenes of the Mardom of Vincent. Along the bottom are scenes from the Passion of Christ, with Judas in a yellow tunic kissing Christ and a furious Peter cutting off the ear of Malcus. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain, inv 15797
  • Gothic Altarpiece of Madonna and Child enthroned with angels byPero di Giovanni known as "Lorenzo Monaco" of Sienna and Florence, circa 1415-1420, tempera and gold leaf on wood. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC 212808.<br />
<br />
The Virgin Mary is seated with the child standing on her lap, in an attitude of blessing, accompanied by angels with incentives. The composition is very simple and fuses Sienese and Florentine pictorial traditions in the style of Lorenzo Monaco, monk of the convent of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Florence and the last representative of the style of Giotto before the Renaissance revival of Fra Angelico.
  • Gothic altarpiece dedicated to St Vincent by Bernat Martorell circa 1483-1440 in Barcelona, tempera and gold lef on wood from the Parish church of St Vincent of menarguens, Noguera, Spain. At the top of the central panels of the altar tryptic, replacing the traditional Calvery scene, can be seen in the centre the Virgin of Mercy and kneeling to the left is Sant Benet de Bages, in black, and to the right St. Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint of thr Benedictine and Cistercian orders . Below this is a depiction of St Vincent and either side are scenes of the Mardom of Vincent. Along the bottom are scenes from the Passion of Christ, with Judas in a yellow tunic kissing Christ and a furious Peter cutting off the ear of Malcus. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain, inv 15797. Against a black background.
  • Gothic altarpiece dedicated to St Vincent by Bernat Martorell circa 1483-1440 in Barcelona, tempera and gold leaf on wood from the Parish church of St Vincent of menarguens, Noguera, Spain. At the top of the central panels of the altar tryptic, replacing the traditional Calvary scene, can be seen in the centre the Virgin of Mercy and kneeling to the left is Sant Benet de Bages, in black, and to the right St. Bernard of Clairvaux, patron saint of thr Benedictine and Cistercian orders . Below this is a depiction of St Vincent and either side are scenes of the Mardom of Vincent. Along the bottom are scenes from the Passion of Christ, with Judas in a yellow tunic kissing Christ and a furious Peter cutting off the ear of Malcus. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain, inv 15797
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion releif sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion releif sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion releif sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.
  • 6th century Inscription of the great hall of the synagogue of Nam-Ham-mam-Lif in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis, present day Tunisia. The mosaic floor of the vestibule (porticus) was an offering from Asterius son of Rusticus, the Head of the Jewish community who was working in the Naro jewellers trade. The mosaic reads in Latin  "Asterius, filius Rustici, arcosinagogi, margaritari, (de d(onis) dei partemporticites-selavit".  The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The so called synagogue of Naro (Hammam-Lif, Tunisia), discovered in 1883, is a square buil-ding (20 by 20 m), consisting of several rooms and hallways communicating with an inner courtyard. The plan is inspired by traditional domestic architecture of Roman Africa. The room, dedicated to religious ceremonies, was paved with a magnificent mosaic of several figured panels with an iconography highlighting Judaeo-Christian concepts, attesting a proselyte attitude addressing a local Judaic community, who was very active between the late fifth c. and the early sixth century AD.

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