• Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 51 for not walking upside down in gods domain, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 33 for keeping snakes away, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' O Rerek! Move not! Behold Geb and Shu have risen against you, for you have eaten a mouse, the abomination of Re" you have crunched the bones of a putrified cat"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 33 for keeping snakes away, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' O Rerek! Move not! Behold Geb and Shu have risen against you, for you have eaten a mouse, the abomination of Re" you have crunched the bones of a putrified cat"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 51 for not walking upside down in gods domain, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 51 for not walking upside down in gods domain, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 81a assuming the form of a lotus associated with the sun god, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
<br />
The spell reads " I am a pure lotus that has ascended by the Sinlight and ia at Ra's nose. I spend my time shedding it on Horus. I am the pure lotus that ascended from the field". <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus- Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Anciient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 30 for stopping the heart betraying the deceased at the tribunal of Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemai period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' Stand not against me as a witness, oppose me not in the Council, act not against me before the gods, outweigh me not before the great God, the Lord os the West"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Anciient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 30 for stopping the heart betraying the deceased at the tribunal of Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemai period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
the spell reads ' Stand not against me as a witness, oppose me not in the Council, act not against me before the gods, outweigh me not before the great God, the Lord os the West"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 33 for keeping snakes away, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' O Rerek! Move not! Behold Geb and Shu have risen against you, for you have eaten a mouse, the abomination of Re" you have crunched the bones of a putrified cat"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 33 for keeping snakes away, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' O Rerek! Move not! Behold Geb and Shu have risen against you, for you have eaten a mouse, the abomination of Re" you have crunched the bones of a putrified cat"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 51 for not walking upside down in gods domain, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 81a assuming the form of a lotus associated with the sun god, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
The spell reads " I am a pure lotus that has ascended by the Sinlight and ia at Ra's nose. I spend my time shedding it on Horus. I am the pure lotus that ascended from the field". <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. white background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancinet Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Pyolemic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. grey background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. close up<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 33 for keeping snakes away, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' O Rerek! Move not! Behold Geb and Shu have risen against you, for you have eaten a mouse, the abomination of Re" you have crunched the bones of a putrified cat"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 81a assuming the form of a lotus associated with the sun god, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
The spell reads " I am a pure lotus that has ascended by the Sinlight and ia at Ra's nose. I spend my time shedding it on Horus. I am the pure lotus that ascended from the field". <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum White Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 126 - what to say in the judgement before Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Spell 125 instruct the deceased as to waht to say infront of Osiris and the Forty Two Judges in the Hall of Two Maat, the netherworlds Judgement Hall. <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Anciient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 30 for stopping the heart betraying the deceased at the tribunal of Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemai period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' Stand not against me as a witness, oppose me not in the Council, act not against me before the gods, outweigh me not before the great God, the Lord os the West"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Anciient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 30 for stopping the heart betraying the deceased at the tribunal of Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemai period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' Stand not against me as a witness, oppose me not in the Council, act not against me before the gods, outweigh me not before the great God, the Lord os the West"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 51 for not walking upside down in gods domain, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 81a assuming the form of a lotus associated with the sun god, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. White Background<br />
<br />
The spell reads " I am a pure lotus that has ascended by the Sinlight and ia at Ra's nose. I spend my time shedding it on Horus. I am the pure lotus that ascended from the field". <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 81a assuming the form of a lotus associated with the sun god, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
The spell reads " I am a pure lotus that has ascended by the Sinlight and ia at Ra's nose. I spend my time shedding it on Horus. I am the pure lotus that ascended from the field". <br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum <br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha & Merit, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Ptolemaic Period (722-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Scribe of Thebes Necropolis Nebhepet Book of the Dead, 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Scribe of Thebes Necropolis Nebhepet Book of the Dead, 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum.  White background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Scribe of Thebes Necropolis Nebhepet Book of the Dead, 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancinet Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. white background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. white background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Aaner Book of the Dead, Thebes - 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background<br />
<br />
During the 21st Dynasty the number of spells in Books of the Dead was often reduced in favour of decrative panels. small illustrated vignettes take up a large part of the papytus surface
  • Ancientt Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Anciient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 30 for stopping the heart betraying the deceased at the tribunal of Osiris, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemai period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' Stand not against me as a witness, oppose me not in the Council, act not against me before the gods, outweigh me not before the great God, the Lord os the West"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 105 for gratifying the deceased with Ka, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum<br />
<br />
The spell is " Hail to thee, my spirit, my lifetime. Behold I am come unto thee risen, powerful, posessed of a soul, mighty.<br />
<br />
You who weighs in the balance. may truth rise to the nose of Ra, on that day of judgement, ley not my head be taken away from me."<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.  white background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - From  tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Scribe of Thebes Necropolis Nebhepet Book of the Dead, 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Black background
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus  - Scribe of Thebes Necropolis Nebhepet Book of the Dead, 21st Dynasty (1076-943C).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey background
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele of ssuperintendant of chancellor Meru, limestone, Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, (2009-1959 BC), Abydos or Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Grey background. Drovetti cat 1447.<br />
<br />
The upper section of the stele is dedicated to Meru's father, the central part contains a funerary invocation to Osiris. Lower register depict offerings to the dignitary and his mother, The figures are in bas-relief whereas the main text is carved in sunken relief which is less labour intensive. The Stele may have come from Meru's tomb in Thebes.

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EXPLORE HISTORICAL PLACES...

MUSEUMS

Browse pictures & images the treasured artefacts and antiquities exhibits from the great Museum of Europe and the Middle East. See the art and objects made by our ancestors.

SEE MUESEUM ANTIQUITIES....