• Sculpted Assyrian relief panels of Royal Chariot & Guards  from Hadatu ( Aslantas ) around 800 B.C. Istanbul Archaeological museum Inv No. 1946
  • Chaldean Assyrian relief sculpture slab from the northwest palace of King Ashurnasirpal II of a Genie standing. 881-859 B.C form Nimrud or Nimrut ( Kalhu or Kalah). Istanbul Archaeological exhibit Inv. No. 6.
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel  from Nimrud, Iraq.  865-860 B.C North West Palace.  British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit.
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room G, panelled d1. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 124576
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room G, panelled d1. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 124576
  • 810-783 B.C Neo-Assyrian Stele with relief sculpture & inscription to King Adad-Nirari III (son of Samsi-Adad V, King of Assyria) praying to the gods. The inscription reports King Adad-Nirari III's campaign against Palestine in which he marched on Damascus and caused such terror that King Mari I surrendered the Royal city of Damascus paying a tribute of 100 talents of gold.  Istanbul Archaeological Museum Inv. No 2828.
  • Chaldean Assyrian relief sculpture slab from the northwest palace of King Ashurnasirpal II of a Genie standing. 881-859 B.C form Nimrud or Nimrut ( Kalhu or Kalah). Istanbul Archaeological exhibit Inv. No. 5.
  • Chaldean Assyrian relief sculpture slab from the northwest palace of King Ashurnasirpal II of a Genie standing. 881-859 B.C form Nimrud or Nimrut ( Kalhu or Kalah). Istanbul Archaeological exhibit Inv. No. 5.
  • Chaldean Assyrian relief sculpture slab from the northwest palace of King Ashurnasirpal II of a Genie standing. 881-859 B.C form Nimrud or Nimrut ( Kalhu or Kalah). Istanbul Archaeological exhibit Inv. No. 5.
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit from Nimrud, Iraq.  865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room Z.  ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 118874
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit holdingpomegrantes from Nimrud, Iraq.  865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room Z.  ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 118874
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room I. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 118921
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room I. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 118921
  • Sculpted Assyrian relief panels of mace bearers from Hadatu ( Aslantas ) around 800 B.C. Istanbul Archaeological museum Inv No. 14-10
  • Limestone Sculpted relief Stele with inscription to King Sennacherib. The relief shows Assyrian King Sennacherib  praying in front of divine symbols. 705 - 681 B.C Nineveh ( Kuyunjik ) . The inscription tells of King Sennacherib's great feats of war and the building works in Nineveh. It starts " Sennacheribs, the great king, mighty king, king of the universe, king of the Assyria, king of the four regions of the wold, favourite of the great gods". It continues " I led my armies from one end of the earth to the other and brought in submission at my feet all princes, dwelling in palaces, of the four quarters of the world". of his great worked " I enlarged the site of Nineveh, my royal city, I made its market streets wider". further " The wall and outer wall I caused skilfully constructed and raised them mountain high. I widened them to 100 cubits ( 50m )". Istanbul Archaeological Exhibit no. 1.
  • Chaldean Assyrian relief sculpture slab from the northwest palace of King Ashurnasirpal II of a Genie standing. 881-859 B.C form Nimrud or Nimrut ( Kalhu or Kalah). Istanbul Archaeological exhibit Inv. No. 5.
  • Chaldean Assyrian relief sculpture slab from the northwest palace of King Ashurnasirpal II of a Genie standing. 881-859 B.C form Nimrud or Nimrut ( Kalhu or Kalah). Istanbul Archaeological exhibit Inv. No. 5.
  • Chaldean Assyrian relief sculpture slab from the northwest palace of King Ashurnasirpal II of a Genie standing in front of the tree of life. 881-859 B.C form Nimrud or Nimrut ( Kalhu or Kalah). Istanbul Archaeological exhibit Inv. No. 4.
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel  of an eagle headed protective spirit  from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room F, panel 3.  British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit  ref WA 124584-5
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel  of a female protective spirit  from Nimrud, Iraq.  865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room I.  British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit  ref WA 124581
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel  of a female protective spirit  from Nimrud, Iraq.  865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room I.  British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit  ref WA 124581
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq. The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding.  865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room G, panelled d1. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 124576
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq. The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding.  865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room G, panelled d1. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 124576
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel  from Nimrud, Iraq.  865-860 B.C North West Palace.  British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit.
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room G, panelled d1. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 124576
  • Neo-Assyrian basalt statue of King Shalmaneser III (858-824 B.C) . Inscription reads "Shalmaneser, the great king, the mighty king, king of all four region, the powerful and the mighty rival of the princes of the whole earth the great ones, the kings, son of Assur-Nasirapli, King of the universe, King of Assyria, grandson of ~Tukultiu-Ninurta, King of the Universe, King of Assyria". The inscription continues with his campaigns &b deeds in Uratu, Syria, Que & Tabal ending " At the time I rebuilt the walls of my city Ashur from their foundations to their summits. I made an image of my royal self and set it up in the metal gate". From Assur ( Qala't Sharqat) Iraq. Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Inv no. 4650.
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room I. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 118921
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room I. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 118921
  • Assyrian relief sculpture panel of a protective spirit with an eagles Head from Nimrud, Iraq.  The spirit is holding a symbolic fir cone and is sprinkling holy water from the bucket it is holding. The rosette bracelet worn around the wrist symbolises divine power. 865-860 B.C North West Palace, Room G, panelled d1. ref: British Museum Assyrian  Archaeological exhibit WA 124576
  • Medieval Gothic ivory diptych with scenes from the life of Christ and the Virgin made in Paris around 1370-1380.  inv 4089, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Gothic ivory diptych depicting the Virgin and child,  made in Paris in the first quarter of the 14th century.  inv 11097, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted Gothic gilded wooden statue altarpiece of Saint Catherine, circa 1520-1525 by Niklaus Weckmann from Ulm, Germany. The young Christian martyr is represented with his usual attributes, crown, book, wheel, sword, which make reference to her legendary life and her martyrdom. The bas-relief of Saint Catherine was originally part of an altarpiece. The treatment  and refined painted facial highlights executed the prettiness of the saint. The style is typical of  Niklaus Weckmann, one great masters of late Gothic Swabian art . Inv RF 2207.6,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Gothic reliquary of Saint Martin probably made in Avignon in the second quarter of the 14th century. From the church of Soudeilles, Correze, France.  inv 6459, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory relief panel depicting the arrest of Christ.  From the workshop of Charles-le-Chauve circa 870 AD.. Inv. OA 9526, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted Gothic wooden Fourteen Intercessors altarpiece made at the end of the 15th century in Franconia.  The panel depict 14 saints in total. Inv RF 2531,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted oak relief of three soldiers and two men in a rocky landscape below the walls of Jerusalem, from Antwerp circa 1510-1515. This is a panel from the Passion.  Inv RF  297,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory Triptych relief panel depicting the Ascension, end of 11th cent. AD. Inv OA 6340, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Bouquetin goats horn ivory crosier with traces of paint, circa 12th century from the south of Italy. Inv OA 11150, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory comb with a central relief panel depicting David defeating a Lion. Third quarter of the 9th cent. AD from Metz. Inv. OA 354, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted Gothic wooden Fourteen Intercessors altarpiece made at the end of the 15th century in Franconia.  The panel depict 14 saints in total. Inv RF 2531,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Gothic ivory diptych with scenes from the Passion made in Paris in the second quarter of the 14th century.  inv 10006, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted walnut sculpture of the decent from the Cross, circa 1470-1490 possibly from Antwerp or the Brabant region of Belgium.  Inv RF 4696,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory figure of Christ at the pillar made in Paris around 1300-1320.  inv 12380, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval elephant ivory plaque with traces of paint made in Italy in the 13th or start of the 14th century.  The crucifixion is a rare example of a Gothic piece being inspired by 11th century Romanesque works.  inv 7268, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval elephant ivory relief panel depicting the Crucifixtion. From southern Germany or north of Italy, end of 10th or 11th cent. AD. Inv. OA 12231, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Gothic ivory tabernacle depicting the Virgin and Child with scenes from the Annunciation, Nativity, the adoration of the Magi and the presentation at the Temple  made in Paris in second quarter of the 14th century and is a typical example of tabernacles made in Paris at that period.  inv 2587, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted wooden relief sculptured altarpiece of two Popes, a  Cardinal, a Bishop a cannon and 7 priests praying made in 1505 by Daniel Mauch from Ulm. Inv RF 2805,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory plaque depicting the Crucifixion and the saints at the tomb, end of 11th cent from Salerne or Amalfi. AD. Inv OA 4085, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval gilded manuscript cover depicting the Crucifixion. 11th century from the treasury of the Cathedral of Maastricht. AD.  <br />
This gilded with relief panel with inlaid stones was originally a manuscript cover. Since 1677, it contained the 'documents of the oath of the Dukes of Brabant'. The back of the panel is covered with precious fabrics. On the front, in the central part, is depicted a crucifixion the style of which is reminiscent of the works of the goldsmiths of the Emperor Henry II. On the borders are small icons and emblems including those of the Carolingians. The main interest of this work lies in the four enamelled on gold symbols of the evangelists in the four corners, two being 'Enforced’ on a background of gold, the others being painted.<br />
<br />
One of Latin inscriptions states that 'Beatrice  ordered the execution ( of this work) in honour of Almighty God and his saints“. It could be Beatrice wife of Hermann II of Swabia and daughter Emperor's sister-Conrad II or, more likely, Beatrice of Tuscany who in 1036 was wife of Boniface III, Marquis of Tuscany, and second wife of Geoffrey the Bearded, Duke of Lower Lorraine and Brabant.<br />
 The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  <br />
<br />
 Grey art Background This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  <br />
<br />
Black BackgroundThis goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  Black Background<br />
<br />
This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Mycenaean gold goblet with two handles ening with a dogs head biting the rim,  Acropolis Treasure of Mycenae, Greece, National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  Grey art Background <br />
<br />
This goblet was found as part of a hoard looted in antiquity from Grave Circle A and buried outside the enclosure. 15th century BC
  • Ancient Egyptian limestone funerary stele of Ipepi with his wife, mother and sister in front of Osiris. Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, 2120-1980 BC. Neues Museum Berlin Cat No: AM 24031.
  • Ancient Egyptian limestone funerary stele of Ipepi with his wife, mother and sister in front of Osiris. Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, 2120-1980 BC. Neues Museum Berlin Cat No: AM 24031.
  • Neolithic Marble Female Figurine grave offering of the early Cycladic II period from the Chalandriani, from Syros. 2800-2300BC. Athens Archaeological Museum Ref No 6169.
  • Gold Death Mask Known as the "mask of Agamemnon"  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold & shows a man with a beard. 16th century BC. Cat No 624 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask Known as the "mask of Agamemnon"  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold & shows a man with a beard. 16th century BC. Cat No 624 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian limestone funerary stele of Ipepi with his wife, mother and sister in front of Osiris. Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, 2120-1980 BC. Neues Museum Berlin Cat No: AM 24031.
  • Ancient Egyptian limestone funerary stele of Ipepi with his wife, mother and sister in front of Osiris. Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, 2120-1980 BC. Neues Museum Berlin Cat No: AM 24031.
  • Gold Death Mask Known from Grave IV, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC. Cat No 253 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask Known from Grave IV, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC. Cat No 253 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask Known from Grave IV, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC. Cat No 253 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask Known as the "mask of Agamemnon"  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold & shows a man with a beard. 16th century BC. Cat No 624 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask Known as the "mask of Agamemnon"  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold & shows a man with a beard. 16th century BC. Cat No 624 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Boar's tusk helmet with cheek guards and double bone hook on top. Tomb 515 Mycenae, Greece. 14th-15th century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.. The Boar's tusk helmet was described in the Iliad as follows "Meriones gave Odysseus a bow, a quiver and a sword, and put a cleverly made leather helmet on his head. On the inside there was a strong lining on interwoven straps, onto which a felt cap had been sewn in. The outside was cleverly adorned all around with rows of white tusks from a shiny-toothed boar, the tusks running in alternate directions in each row.<br />
—Homer, Iliad 10.260–5"
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with large palm trees symmetrically placed on the sides and smaller palm trees with floral motifs in between. This Mycenaean  vase is distinguished by the high quality of clay and paint, and by the naturalistic rendering of the decoration. From the Mycenaean cemetery at Argive Deiras, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with large palm trees symmetrically placed on the sides and smaller palm trees with floral motifs in between. This Mycenaean  vase is distinguished by the high quality of clay and paint, and by the naturalistic rendering of the decoration. From the Mycenaean cemetery at Argive Deiras, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Photo of a Three handles "Palace Style" amphora with three large octopuses within a marines cape of rocks and seaweed. A mycenaean copy of a Minoan Marine Style.   Mycenae tomb 2, Greece. 15th century BC,  cat no: 6725, National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Photo of a Three handles "Palace Style" amphora with three large octopuses within a marines cape of rocks and seaweed. A mycenaean copy of a Minoan Marine Style.   Mycenae tomb 2, Greece. 15th century BC,  cat no: 6725, National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Photo of a Three handles "Palace Style" amphora with three large octopuses within a marines cape of rocks and seaweed. A mycenaean copy of a Minoan Marine Style.   Mycenae tomb 2, Greece. 15th century BC,  cat no: 6725, National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with three large octopuses within a marinescape of rocks and seaweed. A Mycenaean imitation of Minoan Marine Style. From the Mycenaean cemetery of Argive Prosymna, tomb 2, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with three large octopuses within a marinescape of rocks and seaweed. A Mycenaean imitation of Minoan Marine Style. From the Mycenaean cemetery of Argive Prosymna, tomb 2, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with three large octopuses within a marinescape of rocks and seaweed. A Mycenaean imitation of Minoan Marine Style. From the Mycenaean cemetery of Argive Prosymna, tomb 2, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with three large octopuses within a marinescape of rocks and seaweed. A Mycenaean imitation of Minoan Marine Style. From the Mycenaean cemetery of Argive Prosymna, tomb 2, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Neolithic Marble Female Figurine grave offering of the early Cycladic II period from the Chalandriani, from Syros. 2800-2300BC. Athens Archaeological Museum Ref No 6169.
  • Gold Death Mask Known from Grave IV, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC. Cat No 253 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC.  Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask Known as the "mask of Agamemnon"  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold & shows a man with a beard. 16th century BC. Cat No 624 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold and is the only mask from grave circle A with eyes open. 16th century BC. Cat No 259 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold and is the only mask from grave circle A with eyes open. 16th century BC. Cat No 259 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Large wine krater known as "House of the Warrior Vase", showing men in full armour ( helmet, cuirass, greaves, shield and spear ) as they depart fro war with a sack of supplies hanging from their spears. A fine example of Mycenaean Pictoral Style. Mycenae acropolis, Greece. 12th century BC, cat no: 1426 ,  National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Boar's tusk helmet with cheek guards and double bone hook on top. Tomb 515 Mycenae, Greece. 14th-15th century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.. The Boar's tusk helmet was described in the Iliad as follows "Meriones gave Odysseus a bow, a quiver and a sword, and put a cleverly made leather helmet on his head. On the inside there was a strong lining on interwoven straps, onto which a felt cap had been sewn in. The outside was cleverly adorned all around with rows of white tusks from a shiny-toothed boar, the tusks running in alternate directions in each row.<br />
—Homer, Iliad 10.260–5"
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with large palm trees symmetrically placed on the sides and smaller palm trees with floral motifs in between. This Mycenaean  vase is distinguished by the high quality of clay and paint, and by the naturalistic rendering of the decoration. From the Mycenaean cemetery at Argive Deiras, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Ancient Egyptian limestone funerary stele of Ipepi with his wife, mother and sister in front of Osiris. Middle Kingdom, 11th Dynasty, 2120-1980 BC. Neues Museum Berlin Cat No: AM 24031.
  • Neolithic Marble Female Figurine grave offering of the early Cycladic II period from the Chalandriani, from Syros. 2800-2300BC. Athens Archaeological Museum Ref No 6169.
  • Gold Death Mask Known from Grave IV, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC. Cat No 253 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC.  Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC.  Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC.  Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold and is the only mask from grave circle A with eyes open. 16th century BC. Cat No 259 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold and is the only mask from grave circle A with eyes open. 16th century BC. Cat No 259 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave V, Grave Circle A, Mycenae. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold and is the only mask from grave circle A with eyes open. 16th century BC. Cat No 259 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Large wine krater known as "House of the Warrior Vase", showing men in full armour ( helmet, cuirass, greaves, shield and spear ) as they depart fro war with a sack of supplies hanging from their spears. A fine example of Mycenaean Pictoral Style. Mycenae acropolis, Greece. 12th century BC, cat no: 1426 ,  National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Boar's tusk helmet with cheek guards and double bone hook on top. Tomb 515 Mycenae, Greece. 14th-15th century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.. The Boar's tusk helmet was described in the Iliad as follows "Meriones gave Odysseus a bow, a quiver and a sword, and put a cleverly made leather helmet on his head. On the inside there was a strong lining on interwoven straps, onto which a felt cap had been sewn in. The outside was cleverly adorned all around with rows of white tusks from a shiny-toothed boar, the tusks running in alternate directions in each row.<br />
—Homer, Iliad 10.260–5"
  • Boar's tusk helmet with cheek guards and double bone hook on top. Tomb 515 Mycenae, Greece. 14th-15th century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.. The Boar's tusk helmet was described in the Iliad as follows "Meriones gave Odysseus a bow, a quiver and a sword, and put a cleverly made leather helmet on his head. On the inside there was a strong lining on interwoven straps, onto which a felt cap had been sewn in. The outside was cleverly adorned all around with rows of white tusks from a shiny-toothed boar, the tusks running in alternate directions in each row.<br />
—Homer, Iliad 10.260–5"
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with large palm trees symmetrically placed on the sides and smaller palm trees with floral motifs in between. This Mycenaean  vase is distinguished by the high quality of clay and paint, and by the naturalistic rendering of the decoration. From the Mycenaean cemetery at Argive Deiras, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with large palm trees symmetrically placed on the sides and smaller palm trees with floral motifs in between. This Mycenaean  vase is distinguished by the high quality of clay and paint, and by the naturalistic rendering of the decoration. From the Mycenaean cemetery at Argive Deiras, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Photo of a Three handles "Palace Style" amphora with three large octopuses within a marines cape of rocks and seaweed. A mycenaean copy of a Minoan Marine Style.   Mycenae tomb 2, Greece. 15th century BC,  cat no: 6725, National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Photo of a Three handles "Palace Style" amphora with three large octopuses within a marines cape of rocks and seaweed. A mycenaean copy of a Minoan Marine Style.   Mycenae tomb 2, Greece. 15th century BC,  cat no: 6725, National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Three handled Mycenaean  Palace Style amphora with three large octopuses within a marinescape of rocks and seaweed. A Mycenaean imitation of Minoan Marine Style. From the Mycenaean cemetery of Argive Prosymna, tomb 2, Greece. 15th Century BC. Cat No 6725 Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Neolithic Marble Female Figurine grave offering of the early Cycladic II period from the Chalandriani, from Syros. 2800-2300BC. Athens Archaeological Museum Ref No 6169.
  • Neolithic Marble Female Figurine grave offering of the early Cycladic II period from the Chalandriani, from Syros. 2800-2300BC. Athens Archaeological Museum Ref No 6169.
  • Gold Death Mask  from Grave Circle A, Mycenae. 16th Century BC. The mask is made of a thin sheet of beaten gold . 16th century BC.  Athens Archaeological Museum.
  • Boar's tusk helmet with cheek guards and double bone hook on top. Tomb 515 Mycenae, Greece. 14th-15th century BC. National Archaeological Museum, Athens.. The Boar's tusk helmet was described in the Iliad as follows "Meriones gave Odysseus a bow, a quiver and a sword, and put a cleverly made leather helmet on his head. On the inside there was a strong lining on interwoven straps, onto which a felt cap had been sewn in. The outside was cleverly adorned all around with rows of white tusks from a shiny-toothed boar, the tusks running in alternate directions in each row.<br />
—Homer, Iliad 10.260–5"
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a seated god or king, , Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
 An older bearded god or mythological King sits on a throne. He held a sceptre and wears a royal diadem and a richly carved tunic and cloak
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Orestes At Delphi Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   <br />
<br />
Orestes who has sought sanctuary at Delphi after murdering his mother, leaves Apollo’s shrine on his way to stand trial in Athens, The hero steps gingerly over sleeping Fury; he brandishes a sword and still hold onto Apollo’s tripod. The Fury has a snake and a burning torch with which she torments male factors. A small local nymph sits above on a rocky outcrop of Delphi’s Mt Parnossos
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture personifing a Balkan Warrior  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The relief figure personifies a Balkan Warrior tribe defeated by Tiberius in AD 6-8 before he became emperor. She wears a classical dress, cloak and helmet and carries a small shield and probably once a spear. A builder’s inscription, “Pirouston”, written above the shield, ensured the relief was put on the right base
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the goddess Roma and Ge (Earth),  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a black background. <br />
<br />
The goddess Roma holds a spear and wears a crown in the form of a city wall. Earth reclines half naked leaning on a pile of fruit. She holds a cornucopia full of more fruit. A baby child (now damaged) climbs up the horn she holds. The relief represents Earths fertility and abundance overseen by Rome.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of emperor Claudius and Britannia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Claudius is about to deliver a death blow to the slumped Britannia. He wears a helmet, cloak and sword belt with a scabbard. Britannia wears a tunic with one breast exposed like the Amazon figures she was modelled on. The inscription reads: Tiberios Klaudios Kaiser - Bretannia.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of emperor Claudius and Britannia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Claudius is about to deliver a death blow to the slumped Britannia. He wears a helmet, cloak and sword belt with a scabbard. Britannia wears a tunic with one breast exposed like the Amazon figures she was modelled on. The inscription reads: Tiberios Klaudios Kaiser - Bretannia.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of emperor Tiberius with a captive Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The naked emperor Tiberius stands frontally holding a spear and shield wearing a cloak and a sword strap. Besides him stands a barbarian
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Emperor and Roman People, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The emperor is a naked warrior and is crowned by a personification of the Roman People or the Senate wearing a toga, the stately civilian dress of a Roman Citizen. The crown is an oak wreath, the corona civica or “civic crown” awarded for saving citizens lives. The emperor is setting up a battlefield trophy beneath which kneels an anguished barbarian women captive
  • Roman Sebasteion rrelief  sculpture of Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Ares, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The nude and classically7 styled young god wears only a helmet and holds a spear (missing) in one hand and a shield in the other. At the left stands cuirass, and at the upper right corner hangs his sword. Ares was a god of war and was not later defaced by Christians probably because he so closely resembles a young emperor.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Anchises and Aphrodite Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The Trojan shepherd Anchises gazes at the seated Aphrodite, his lover for one night on mount Ida. She hold a small Eros on her lap: this is an erotic encounter. The head of Selene (Moon) appears above the mountain rocks: she indicates night time. It was from this union that Aineas was born
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Aineas’ flight from Troy, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Aineas in armour carries his aged farther Anchises on his shoulders and leads his young son Lulus by his hand. They are fleeing from the sack of Troy. The figure floating behind is Aphrodite, Aineas’ mother: she is helping their escape. Old Anchises carries a round box that held images of Troy’s ancestral gods.
  • Roman SSebasteion  relief  sculpture of Apollo and Royal Hero Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Apollo sits on a raised platform with his tripod at his oracular shrine. He is approached by two figures. A women greets  the god with a raised hand. With her is a hero wearing a travelling cloak and the flat headband or diadem of a king. He has come to consult Apollo, probably about a city foundation.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Herakles or Hercules, Nessos and Deianira Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The centaur Nessos agreed to carry Herakles’ (Hercules) wife Deianira across the river Euenos in Aitolia but tried to rape her in mid-stream. I the struggle that followed we see Herakles about to deliver a crushing blow with his club. Nessos has been beaten to her knees but is still fighting. Behind the centaur is the partly disrobed figure of Deianira
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Dionysus Drunk Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
A prancing woodland nymph leads drunken Dionysus who supports himself languidly on a small satyr. This is an image of Dionysian enjoyment and pleasure, hellenistic in style and fluently designed
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Polyphemos and Galatea Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Another mythological love story affirms the power of Aphrodite. The sea nymph Galatea resists the lustful advances of the beastly cycolps Polyphemas in his cave. Polyphemos sits on a rock and tries to pull Galatea between his legs. His right arm is round her back: note the huge hand on her backside.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of  Bellerophon Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Bellerophon was a Lykian hero and was claimed as a founder of Aphrodisias. He holds his winged horse Pegasos. The deign was modelled on another relief panel in the series “Royal hero with Dod Hunting”. The carving is poor and the sculptor may have been a novice.modelled
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of  Three Heroes and a Dog Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.<br />
<br />
Two heroes stand in front of a third hero who ia seated on a rock and pats the head of a bitch hound. They are hunters and the relief is partnered by the reliefs of Melager and Atalante and Meleaner and boar
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of  Three Heroes and a Dog Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Two heroes stand in front of a third hero who ia seated on a rock and pats the head of a bitch hound. They are hunters and the relief is partnered by the reliefs of Melager and Atalante and Meleaner and boar
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Meleager and Atalante  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Meleager sits on a rock tying his sandal. Below him lies a fierce hunting dog with a broad collar. On one side a god or another hero wearing a rounded hat was crowning Meleager ( arm missing). On the other side stands the huntress Atalante, Meleager’s lover: she wears a short dress and quiver, and lifts her cloak at the shoulder in a gesture of modesty.
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Zeus and Prometheus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Zeus and Prometheus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture, Aphrodisias of Dionysus as a baby, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
Baby Dionysus is handed from one nymph to another for suckling. A bearded Silenos gestures excitedly. The scene is set at Nysa in the Meander Valley, where Zeus had his gifted child Dionysos, born to him by Semele and brought up in the wilds out of the view of Hera.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture, Aphrodisias of Dionysus as a baby, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.    Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Baby Dionysus is handed from one nymph to another for suckling. A bearded Silenos gestures excitedly. The scene is set at Nysa in the Meander Valley, where Zeus had his gifted child Dionysos, born to him by Semele and brought up in the wilds out of the view of Hera.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture, Aphrodisias of Dionysus as a baby, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.      Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Baby Dionysus is handed from one nymph to another for suckling. A bearded Silenos gestures excitedly. The scene is set at Nysa in the Meander Valley, where Zeus had his gifted child Dionysos, born to him by Semele and brought up in the wilds out of the view of Hera.
  • Ancient Egyptian decorated mari ware, class D, baked clay, Predynastic Period, Naqada II Protodynastic Period (3700-300 BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. White background.<br />
<br />
Mari was a new raw material used to make vases from Naqada II onwards. The material was a marl of rich clay found in some ancient Egyptian desert site which was pulverised and mixed with water. Typically the pottery had a rosy sinish when fired making a good background for painted motifs.
  • Ancient Egyptian shabti box, wood, Intermediate Period, 21st-22nd Dynasty (1076-746 BC), Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
Floor 1 room 10 of Museum - Essential items of funerary equipment from the New Kingdom on, shabti figures, of which there could be from 1 to over 400 examples in a single tomb, were meant to substitute for the deceased whenever he or she was called upon to perform manual labor in the afterlife. the shabti box is a decorated wooden box to hold the figures<br />
<br />
Essential items of funerary equipment from the New Kingdom on, shabti figures, of which there could be from 1 to over 400 examples in a single tomb, were meant to substitute for the deceased whenever he or she was called upon to perform manual labor in the afterlife. the shabti box is a decorated wooden box to hold the figures
  • Ancient Egyptian False Door stele of Princess Wehemnefret, limestone, Old Kingdom, 4th Dynasty (2543-2435 BC), Giza, Western Cemetery, mastaba of Wehemnefret. Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Schiaparelli Cat 1840. black background<br />
<br />
In the centre at the yop the deceased woman is depicted sitiing infront of a tabel laden with bread slices. The slices are depicted vertically as was the stylistic convention of the period. Imediately below the panel , on the left side of the lintel of the false door, is the name of the deceased and her titles stressing that she is a member of the Royal family "the daughter of the king".  In the 4 upper panels high ranking officials and courtiers are depicted. The nude child with his finger in his mouth on the right inner jamb is identified by its inscription as Irenptah, the deceased grandson. In other panels are ndividuals carrying offerings and priests.
  • Ancient Egyptian stele dedicated to Re-Harakhty by Irtiertjay,  Late Period, 25th Dynasty, (7620-580 BC), Thebes, Cat 1530. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The round topped stele dedicated by Irtiertjay to Re-Harakhty , Isis and the 4 sons of Horus. Gifted by the Cairo Museum
  • Ancient Egyptian family stele of chief scribe Horhernakht, son of Khety, Middle Kingdom, 2nd half of 12th Dynasty (1850-1759 BC).  Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background. Old Fund cat 1613.
  • Ancient Egyptian Ra stele , limestone, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty, (1279-1190 BC), Deir el-Medina,  Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
On this round-topped stele, the deceased Pashed, <br />
"excellent spirit of Ra", akh-ikr, is pictured left, <br />
seated on a chair with lion's paws, smelling the lotus <br />
flower. The offering table holds a basket containing <br />
various offerings. A large open pomegranate, containing <br />
a great quantity of seeds, appears under the chair. The <br />
colours on this stele are well preserved.<br />
<br />
Akh iqer en Ra " the excellent spirit of Ra' stele. The individual is smelling a lotus flower. One of three stele forund in different rooms of houses in Deir el-Medina where they stood in niches.
  • Ancient Egyptian funerary stele of painter Maya, limestone, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, (1336-1292 BC), Deir el-Medina,  Egyptian Museum, Turin.  Drovetti cat 1579.<br />
<br />
<br />
In the upper portion Maya and his wife Tamit pay homage to Osiris and Hathor, the gods of the necropolis. In the lower register is a similar scene in which his wife recieves food offerings from their many children, as was traditional at the time.
  • Ancient Egyptian wooden model of bread making, Middle Kingdom, 12th Dynasty, (1939-1875 BC), Asyut., Tomb of Minhotep Egyptian Museum, Turin. Cat 8789. Grey background. <br />
<br />
Wooden tomb models were an Egyptian funerary custom throughout the Middle Kingdom in which wooden figurines and sets were constructed to be placed in the tombs of Egyptian royalty. These wooden models represented the work of servants, farmers, other skilled craftsman, armies, and religious rituals
  • Ancient Egyptian wooden falcon bird, Late Period (722-322 BC), Egyptian Museum, Turin. Cat 986. <br />
<br />
Wooden tomb models were an Egyptian funerary custom from the Middle Kingdom in which wooden figurines and sets were constructed to be placed in the tombs of Egyptian royalty. These wooden models represented the work of servants, farmers, other skilled craftsman, armies, and religious rituals
  • Ancient Egyptian statuette of Taweret decicated to draughtsman Parahotep, wood, New Kingdom, 19 Dynasty, (14292-1190 BC), deir el Medina. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background. Cat 526.<br />
<br />
 Taweret is the protective ancient Egyptian goddess of childbirth and fertility. The deity is typically depicted as a bipedal female hippopotamus with feline attributes, pendulous female human breasts, the limbs and paws of a lion, and the back and tail of a Nile crocodile.
  • Ancient Egyptian shabtis doll, lwood, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, (1538-1040 BC), Deir el Medina. Egyptian Museum, Turin.Grey background. <br />
<br />
shabti figures began to occur in Middle Kingdom tombs with a twofold nature: on <br />
the one hand, they were meant to be images of their owners, representatives of the deceased in the realm of the Lord of Eternity. <br />
On the other hand, they were also considered to be servants of the deceased, taking the role of the servant statues. The complex <br />
nature of the shabti figure as a substitute of both the owner and his or her servants remains unaltered during the New Kingdom
  • Ancient Egyptian Roman female mummy mask, limestone, Roman Period, 2nd Cent AD, Hawara,  Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey Background<br />
<br />
This is a remarkable gilt cartonnage with inlaid cystal eyes . The woman wears a Roman style hardo half covered by a veil, a himation, fringed cloak, yied to her breat, snake shaped bracelets and a necklace of pink flowers, all of which are connected to the cult of Isis.
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of a queen wearing a clinging dress, sandstone, Ptolemaic Period (332-30BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. <br />
<br />
Drovetti Collection, Cat 1386
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of a Ram protecting King Amenhotep III, granite, New Kingdom, early 18th Dynasty (1390-1353), Karnak, Temple of Mut. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background<br />
<br />
a figure of Amenhotep III as Osiris stands between the legs of the Ram. there is a hole in the top of the rams head for the insertion of a solar disk associating it to the god Amon, whose animal form is the ram, and with the sun god Re. The statue may have stood in the Soleb of Nubia. Drovetti Collection. C 836
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. <br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of pharaoh Horemheb with god Amun, limestone, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, (1319-1292 BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background.<br />
<br />
Horemheb stands beside the taller depiction of the god Amun. The statue is typical of the period following the religious and artistic revolution of King Akhenaten. The muscles are not emphasised and the contours are soft, with rounded hips and juvenile faces, the eyes are almond shaped and the cheeks and lips sensual. Some scholars believe this may have been a statue of Tutenkhamon remodelled by Horemheb. Dorvetti collection. C 768
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Tuthmosis II, granodorite, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, (1479-1425 BC), Karnak, Temple of Amun. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
Tuthmosis II is shown wearing Royal regalia including the shendyt kilt, the nemes headdress and the uraeus cobra on his forehead. Between his legs in a bulls tail, the symbol of power. On the sides of the throne is the sema-tawy, a sign composed of a lotus and papyrus, the symbols od Upper and Lower Egypt. Under the feet of the king are the Nine Bows, the enemies of Egypt. Together these symbolise that the pharaoh keeps the two halves of Egypt together and protects them against her enemies. Drovetti Collection. C 1376
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Ramesses II , granite, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, (1500-1400 BC, Karnak, Temple of Mut. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The statue depicting Ramesses II  was reworked over a statue of an earlier pharaoh. This can be seen around the corners of the mouth which show reworking. The roundness of the face and short apron also point to an earlier style.  Ramesses II is depicted praying with his arms out straight and his hands resting flat on the apron of his kilt.
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of king Horemheb & his wife Mutnedjemet, granodiorite, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, (1319-1292 BC), Karnak, Temple of Amon. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey Background.<br />
<br />
Queen Mutnedjemet is depicted in the role of Hathor, the sun god, embracing her husband. The statue is unfinished with details missing including the stripes in the Royal kilt, the wings of a vulture on the queens headdress and bound enemies on one side of the throne. On the back of the throne is a long inscription recording the coronation of Horemheb who was the general of Tutenkhamun before ascending to the throne. Drovetto collection. C 1379.
  • Ancient Egyptian mummy of a canid, linen, Late Period, Ptolomaic Perios (722-30BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background<br />
<br />
A canid is a member of the dog family.
  • Ancient Egyptian mummy of a baby and painted cartonnage funereal mask- Late Ptolomaic Roman Period, 1at cent BC to 2 cent AD. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background
  • Ancient Egyptian sarcophagus of Royal scribe Butehamon, Thebes, 21st Dynasty, reign of Ramese XI, (1078 or 1077 BC ). Egyptian Museum, Turin. white background<br />
Butehamon was a key figure between the end of the New Kingdom (Twentieth Dynasty, reign of Ramesse XI) and the beginning of the Third Intermediate Period (Twenty-First Dynasty, reign of Smendes). Born into an illustious family he became a man of letters
  • Ancient Egyptian sarcophagus lid of Djehutymes, pink granite, 19th Dynasty (1279-1213 BC.) Thebes, Khokha, TT32. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Black background<br />
<br />
The lid of the coffin of Djehutymes, husband of singer Asset
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 33 for keeping snakes away, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolomaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell reads ' O Rerek! Move not! Behold Geb and Shu have risen against you, for you have eaten a mouse, the abomination of Re" you have crunched the bones of a putrified cat"<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a seated god or king, , Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
 An older bearded god or mythological King sits on a throne. He held a sceptre and wears a royal diadem and a richly carved tunic and cloak
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a seated god or king, , Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
 An older bearded god or mythological King sits on a throne. He held a sceptre and wears a royal diadem and a richly carved tunic and cloak
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Nero , Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Nero holds the orb of world rule in one hand and crowns the military trophy with the other. Between the trophy and the emperor stands a bound captive boy. He wears long barbarian trousers and looks up at Nero.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a prisoner of  Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a prisoner of  Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Anchises and Aphrodite Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The Trojan shepherd Anchises gazes at the seated Aphrodite, his lover for one night on mount Ida. She hold a small Eros on her lap: this is an erotic encounter. The head of Selene (Moon) appears above the mountain rocks: she indicates night time. It was from this union that Aineas was born
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Anchises and Aphrodite Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The Trojan shepherd Anchises gazes at the seated Aphrodite, his lover for one night on mount Ida. She hold a small Eros on her lap: this is an erotic encounter. The head of Selene (Moon) appears above the mountain rocks: she indicates night time. It was from this union that Aineas was born
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Orestes At Delphi Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   <br />
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Orestes who has sought sanctuary at Delphi after murdering his mother, leaves Apollo’s shrine on his way to stand trial in Athens, The hero steps gingerly over sleeping Fury; he brandishes a sword and still hold onto Apollo’s tripod. The Fury has a snake and a burning torch with which she torments male factors. A small local nymph sits above on a rocky outcrop of Delphi’s Mt Parnossos
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Meleager and Atalante  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.    <br />
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Meleager sits on a rock tying his sandal. Below him lies a fierce hunting dog with a broad collar. On one side a god or another hero wearing a rounded hat was crowning Meleager ( arm missing). On the other side stands the huntress Atalante, Meleager’s lover: she wears a short dress and quiver, and lifts her cloak at the shoulder in a gesture of modesty.
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Zeus and Prometheus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.    <br />
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Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Interior of Aphrodisias Museum, showing Roman Sebasteion relief sculptures,   Aphrodisias, Turkey.
  • Interior of Aphrodisias Museum, showing Roman Sebastian relief sculptures,   Aphrodisias, Turkey.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Krete Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
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The classical hairstyle, dress and pose characterises the figure of civilised and free,
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Krete Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The classical hairstyle, dress and pose characterises the figure of civilised and free,
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Ethnos of the Dacians Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
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The Dacians are shown as a captive Barbarian woman. Her arms are crossed in submission, her thick dress slips off the shoulder slightly partly revealing her breast. The forepart of a small bull stands in profile behind. Dacia (modern Romania) was claimed by Augustus as a conquest in 1BC to 4AD
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Ethnos of the Dacians Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
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The Dacians are shown as a captive Barbarian woman. Her arms are crossed in submission, her thick dress slips off the shoulder slightly partly revealing her breast. The forepart of a small bull stands in profile behind. Dacia (modern Romania) was claimed by Augustus as a conquest in 1BC to 4AD
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Ethnos of the Dacians Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
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The Dacians are shown as a captive Barbarian woman. Her arms are crossed in submission, her thick dress slips off the shoulder slightly partly revealing her breast. The forepart of a small bull stands in profile behind. Dacia (modern Romania) was claimed by Augustus as a conquest in 1BC to 4AD
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Ethnos of the Dacians Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Against a grey background.<br />
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The Dacians are shown as a captive Barbarian woman. Her arms are crossed in submission, her thick dress slips off the shoulder slightly partly revealing her breast. The forepart of a small bull stands in profile behind. Dacia (modern Romania) was claimed by Augustus as a conquest in 1BC to 4AD
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture personifing a Balkan Warrior  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
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The relief figure personifies a Balkan Warrior tribe defeated by Tiberius in AD 6-8 before he became emperor. She wears a classical dress, cloak and helmet and carries a small shield and probably once a spear. A builder’s inscription, “Pirouston”, written above the shield, ensured the relief was put on the right base
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture personifing a Balkan Warrior  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The relief figure personifies a Balkan Warrior tribe defeated by Tiberius in AD 6-8 before he became emperor. She wears a classical dress, cloak and helmet and carries a small shield and probably once a spear. A builder’s inscription, “Pirouston”, written above the shield, ensured the relief was put on the right base
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture personifing a Balkan Warrior  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The relief figure personifies a Balkan Warrior tribe defeated by Tiberius in AD 6-8 before he became emperor. She wears a classical dress, cloak and helmet and carries a small shield and probably once a spear. A builder’s inscription, “Pirouston”, written above the shield, ensured the relief was put on the right base
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture personifing a Balkan Warrior  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The relief figure personifies a Balkan Warrior tribe defeated by Tiberius in AD 6-8 before he became emperor. She wears a classical dress, cloak and helmet and carries a small shield and probably once a spear. A builder’s inscription, “Pirouston”, written above the shield, ensured the relief was put on the right base
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Ethnos with belted peplos, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
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The matronly figure wears a belted classical dress (peplos) and held her long cloak up behind. The square hole above her shoulder with a corresponding hole in the back, was for lifting the finished relief into the ancient building by crane.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of the god Okeanos (Ocean), Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
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The bearded of Okeanos makes an epiphany, controlling his cloak which billows around his head. Ocean would be paired with Earth: together they represented empire without end, over land and sea
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of the god Okeanos (Ocean), Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
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The bearded of Okeanos makes an epiphany, controlling his cloak which billows around his head. Ocean would be paired with Earth: together they represented empire without end, over land and sea
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of the god Okeanos (Ocean), Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
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The bearded of Okeanos makes an epiphany, controlling his cloak which billows around his head. Ocean would be paired with Earth: together they represented empire without end, over land and sea
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of the goddess Herma (day), Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a white background.<br />
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Goddess  Herma or Day steadies a dramatically billowing cloak that frames her head. The motif , also visible on the Okeanos relief, indicates flying, floating and divine epiphany - the appearance of gods to mortals. Day would be paired with night : together they signify the eternity of the Roman imperial order.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of the goddess Herma (day), Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Goddess  Herma or Day steadies a dramatically billowing cloak that frames her head. The motif , also visible on the Okeanos relief, indicates flying, floating and divine epiphany - the appearance of gods to mortals. Day would be paired with night : together they signify the eternity of the Roman imperial order.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero being crowned emperor by Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.     Against a white background.<br />
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Agrippina crowns her young son Nero with a laurel wreath. She carries a cornucopia, a symbol of Fortune and Plenty, and he wears the armour and cloak of a Roman commander, with a helmet on the ground near his feet. The scene refers to Nero’s accession as emperor in AD 54, and belongs before AD 59 when Nero had Agrippina murdered.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero being crowned emperor by Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Agrippina crowns her young son Nero with a laurel wreath. She carries a cornucopia, a symbol of Fortune and Plenty, and he wears the armour and cloak of a Roman commander, with a helmet on the ground near his feet. The scene refers to Nero’s accession as emperor in AD 54, and belongs before AD 59 when Nero had Agrippina murdered.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero being crowned emperor by Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Agrippina crowns her young son Nero with a laurel wreath. She carries a cornucopia, a symbol of Fortune and Plenty, and he wears the armour and cloak of a Roman commander, with a helmet on the ground near his feet. The scene refers to Nero’s accession as emperor in AD 54, and belongs before AD 59 when Nero had Agrippina murdered.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Augustus and Goddess Victory, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
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The naked emperor Augustus stands in majesty with the winged goddess Victory(Nike). He carried a spear and has an eagle, the bird representing Zeus, at his feet. Victory is crowning a military trophy - a rough post with enemy armour attached to it. Beneath the trophy is a barbarian captive, his hands tied behind his back.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Augustus and Goddess Victory, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The naked emperor Augustus stands in majesty with the winged goddess Victory(Nike). He carried a spear and has an eagle, the bird representing Zeus, at his feet. Victory is crowning a military trophy - a rough post with enemy armour attached to it. Beneath the trophy is a barbarian captive, his hands tied behind his back.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Augustus and Goddess Victory, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The naked emperor Augustus stands in majesty with the winged goddess Victory(Nike). He carried a spear and has an eagle, the bird representing Zeus, at his feet. Victory is crowning a military trophy - a rough post with enemy armour attached to it. Beneath the trophy is a barbarian captive, his hands tied behind his back.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Augustus and Goddess Victory, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The naked emperor Augustus stands in majesty with the winged goddess Victory(Nike). He carried a spear and has an eagle, the bird representing Zeus, at his feet. Victory is crowning a military trophy - a rough post with enemy armour attached to it. Beneath the trophy is a barbarian captive, his hands tied behind his back.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of  an Imperial prince as Diokouros son of zeus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
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An imperial youth wearing a military cloak and cuirass of a commander holds the reins of hios horse. This panel is next to a Claudius panel so is probably of Britanicus or Nero the emperors son and intended successor
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of  an Imperial prince as Diokouros son of zeus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
An imperial youth wearing a military cloak and cuirass of a commander holds the reins of hios horse. This panel is next to a Claudius panel so is probably of Britanicus or Nero the emperors son and intended successor
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
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Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Agrippina, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Claudius in heroic nudity and military cloak shakes hands with his wife Agrippina and is crowned by the Roman people or the Senate wearing a toga. The subject is imperial concord with the traditional Roman state. Agrippina holds ears of wheat: like Demeter goddess of fertility. The emperor is crowned with an oak wreath, the Corona civica or “citizen crow”, awarded to Roman leaders for saving citizens lives: the emperor id therefore represented as saviour of the people.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of  an Imperial prince as Diokouros, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
An imperial youth wearing a military cloak and cuirass of a commander holds the reins of hios horse. This panel is next to a Claudius panel so is probably of Britanicus or Nero the emperors son and intended successor
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of  an Imperial prince as Diokouros, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
An imperial youth wearing a military cloak and cuirass of a commander holds the reins of hios horse. This panel is next to a Claudius panel so is probably of Britanicus or Nero the emperors son and intended successor
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of  an Imperial prince as Diokouros, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
An imperial youth wearing a military cloak and cuirass of a commander holds the reins of hios horse. This panel is next to a Claudius panel so is probably of Britanicus or Nero the emperors son and intended successor
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the goddess Roma and Ge (Earth),  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The goddess Roma holds a spear and wears a crown in the form of a city wall. Earth reclines half naked leaning on a pile of fruit. She holds a cornucopia full of more fruit. A baby child (now damaged) climbs up the horn she holds. The relief represents Earths fertility and abundance overseen by Rome.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the goddess Roma and Ge (Earth),  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Against an art background. <br />
<br />
The goddess Roma holds a spear and wears a crown in the form of a city wall. Earth reclines half naked leaning on a pile of fruit. She holds a cornucopia full of more fruit. A baby child (now damaged) climbs up the horn she holds. The relief represents Earths fertility and abundance overseen by Rome.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia depicting a fallen female representing Armenia,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   <br />
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Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia depicting a fallen female representing Armenia,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.    Against a black background.<br />
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Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Victory of the Emperors, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
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The inscription identifies the subject of the relief panel as the “Victory of the Emperors” (Neike Sebaston), and refers to the conquest of Armenia and Britannica in its adjacent relief panels. A half naked Victory flies diagonally across the panel, carrying a military trophy over her shoulder. A small winged Eros, now damaged was clinging to the end of the trophy pole. Victory was a key imperial attribute
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of emperor Claudius and Britannia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
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Naked warrior emperor Claudius is about to deliver a death blow to the slumped Britannia. He wears a helmet, cloak and sword belt with a scabbard. Britannia wears a tunic with one breast exposed like the Amazon figures she was modelled on. The inscription reads: Tiberios Klaudios Kaiser - Bretannia.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of emperor Claudius and Britannia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Claudius is about to deliver a death blow to the slumped Britannia. He wears a helmet, cloak and sword belt with a scabbard. Britannia wears a tunic with one breast exposed like the Amazon figures she was modelled on. The inscription reads: Tiberios Klaudios Kaiser - Bretannia.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of emperor Claudius and Britannia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Claudius is about to deliver a death blow to the slumped Britannia. He wears a helmet, cloak and sword belt with a scabbard. Britannia wears a tunic with one breast exposed like the Amazon figures she was modelled on. The inscription reads: Tiberios Klaudios Kaiser - Bretannia.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of emperor Tiberius with a captive Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The naked emperor Tiberius stands frontally holding a spear and shield wearing a cloak and a sword strap. Besides him stands a barbarian
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Aphrodite crowned by Andreia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
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A draped goddess is crowned by a female warrior figure. The goddess is probably Aphrodite, while the warrior has a bare breated Amazonian dress and equipment (spear, sword strap and shield) worn by Roma or Andreia (Bravery)
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Aphrodite crowned by Andreia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
A draped goddess is crowned by a female warrior figure. The goddess is probably Aphrodite, while the warrior has a bare breated Amazonian dress and equipment (spear, sword strap and shield) worn by Roma or Andreia (Bravery)
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Aphrodite crowned by Andreia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
A draped goddess is crowned by a female warrior figure. The goddess is probably Aphrodite, while the warrior has a bare breated Amazonian dress and equipment (spear, sword strap and shield) worn by Roma or Andreia (Bravery)
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Emperor and Roman People, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The emperor is a naked warrior and is crowned by a personification of the Roman People or the Senate wearing a toga, the stately civilian dress of a Roman Citizen. The crown is an oak wreath, the corona civica or “civic crown” awarded for saving citizens lives. The emperor is setting up a battlefield trophy beneath which kneels an anguished barbarian women captive
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Emperor and Roman People, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The emperor is a naked warrior and is crowned by a personification of the Roman People or the Senate wearing a toga, the stately civilian dress of a Roman Citizen. The crown is an oak wreath, the corona civica or “civic crown” awarded for saving citizens lives. The emperor is setting up a battlefield trophy beneath which kneels an anguished barbarian women captive
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Emperor and Roman People, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The emperor is a naked warrior and is crowned by a personification of the Roman People or the Senate wearing a toga, the stately civilian dress of a Roman Citizen. The crown is an oak wreath, the corona civica or “civic crown” awarded for saving citizens lives. The emperor is setting up a battlefield trophy beneath which kneels an anguished barbarian women captive
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Emperor and Roman People, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The emperor is a naked warrior and is crowned by a personification of the Roman People or the Senate wearing a toga, the stately civilian dress of a Roman Citizen. The crown is an oak wreath, the corona civica or “civic crown” awarded for saving citizens lives. The emperor is setting up a battlefield trophy beneath which kneels an anguished barbarian women captive
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of  Two princes, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.<br />
<br />
Two princes stand like statues, naked, wearing cloaks. The left figure holds the orb of the world in one hand, a symbol of  world rule that indicates he is the imperial heir, and in the other a ship’s stern ornament (aphlaston), a symbol of naval victory. They and probably Gius and Lucius, the grandsons of Augustus, or Nero and Britanicus, Claudius’ heir.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of  Two princes, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Two princes stand like statues, naked, wearing cloaks. The left figure holds the orb of the world in one hand, a symbol of  world rule that indicates he is the imperial heir, and in the other a ship’s stern ornament (aphlaston), a symbol of naval victory. They and probably Gius and Lucius, the grandsons of Augustus, or Nero and Britanicus, Claudius’ heir.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the goddess Victory, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
A winged goddess Victory( Nike) flies past carrying a military trophy. She wears a long light dress and has one breast and one leg exposed. Her clothing is set in motion by her swift flight.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the goddess Victory, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
A winged goddess Victory( Nike) flies past carrying a military trophy. She wears a long light dress and has one breast and one leg exposed. Her clothing is set in motion by her swift flight.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Leda and swan, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Zeus disguised as a swan assaults Spartan princess Leda. The bird stands on the tips of its outspread wings and presses its webbed foot on the thigh of modest, struggling Leda. The swan is supported from behind a small Eros. From this encounter came a large egg from which were born Helen and the Dionskouroi twins, Kastor and Polydeukes
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Leda and swan, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Zeus disguised as a swan assaults Spartan princess Leda. The bird stands on the tips of its outspread wings and presses its webbed foot on the thigh of modest, struggling Leda. The swan is supported from behind a small Eros. From this encounter came a large egg from which were born Helen and the Dionskouroi twins, Kastor and Polydeukes
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Leda and swan, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Zeus disguised as a swan assaults Spartan princess Leda. The bird stands on the tips of its outspread wings and presses its webbed foot on the thigh of modest, struggling Leda. The swan is supported from behind a small Eros. From this encounter came a large egg from which were born Helen and the Dionskouroi twins, Kastor and Polydeukes
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Leda and swan, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Zeus disguised as a swan assaults Spartan princess Leda. The bird stands on the tips of its outspread wings and presses its webbed foot on the thigh of modest, struggling Leda. The swan is supported from behind a small Eros. From this encounter came a large egg from which were born Helen and the Dionskouroi twins, Kastor and Polydeukes
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Leda and swan, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Zeus disguised as a swan assaults Spartan princess Leda. The bird stands on the tips of its outspread wings and presses its webbed foot on the thigh of modest, struggling Leda. The swan is supported from behind a small Eros. From this encounter came a large egg from which were born Helen and the Dionskouroi twins, Kastor and Polydeukes
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Poseidon and Amphitrite,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The two god-like tritons, Poseidon and Amphitrite, are seated on two sea horses accompanied by two fish legged tritons below. Between the tritons sits a sea-putto of baby triton. The male god is in the form of Poseidon crowned by his wife Amphitrite. Unusually he wears a military cloak and they might be an emperor and his wife (such as Claudius and Agrippina) in the guise of Poseidon and Amphitrite
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Poseidon and Amphitrite,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The two god-like tritons, Poseidon and Amphitrite, are seated on two sea horses accompanied by two fish legged tritons below. Between the tritons sits a sea-putto of baby triton. The male god is in the form of Poseidon crowned by his wife Amphitrite. Unusually he wears a military cloak and they might be an emperor and his wife (such as Claudius and Agrippina) in the guise of Poseidon and Amphitrite
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Roma armed, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Roma is equipped with a spear, helmet, round shield and imperial style armour. Blow crouches a naked bearded prisoner, with hands tied behind his back and a skin knotted around his neck. He turns to look up at Roma
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a Goddess inscribing a trophy, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
A draped goddess strides forward to inscribe a military trophy to which is bound a kneeling female captive. The goddess is probably a personification such as Honour, Virtue or Courage.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a Goddess inscribing a trophy, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
A draped goddess strides forward to inscribe a military trophy to which is bound a kneeling female captive. The goddess is probably a personification such as Honour, Virtue or Courage.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of a Goddess inscribing a trophy, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
A draped goddess strides forward to inscribe a military trophy to which is bound a kneeling female captive. The goddess is probably a personification such as Honour, Virtue or Courage.
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Nero with captive, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Nero holds the orb of world rule in one hand and crowns the military trophy with the other. Between the trophy and the emperor stands a bound captive boy. He wears long barbarian trousers and looks up at Nero.
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Nero with captive, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Nero holds the orb of world rule in one hand and crowns the military trophy with the other. Between the trophy and the emperor stands a bound captive boy. He wears long barbarian trousers and looks up at Nero.
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Nero with captive, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Nero holds the orb of world rule in one hand and crowns the military trophy with the other. Between the trophy and the emperor stands a bound captive boy. He wears long barbarian trousers and looks up at Nero.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Nero with captive, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Naked warrior emperor Nero holds the orb of world rule in one hand and crowns the military trophy with the other. Between the trophy and the emperor stands a bound captive boy. He wears long barbarian trousers and looks up at Nero.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Roman Sebasteion rrelief  sculpture of Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Roman Sebasteion rrelief  sculpture of Emperor Claudius as God of sea and land,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The Emperor as god Claudius strides forward in a divine epiphany, drapery billowing around his head. He receives a cornucopia with fruits of the earth from a figure emerging from the ground, anda ship’s steering oar from a marine tritoness with fish legs. The idea is clear: the god-emperor guarantees the prosperity of land and sea. The relief is a remarkable local visualisation - elevated and panegyrical - of the emperor’s role as a universal saviour and divine protector.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Hygieia, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Hygieia, the goddess of Health, hold a flat bowl (phiale) from which she feeds a snake. The snake is wound twice around her forearm. A plump naked child sits on a square pedestal. Hygieia was the daughter of the healing god Asklepios, with whom she is paired here

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