• Orange Lichens growing on rocks
  • Lichens growing on rocks
  • Orange Lichens growing on rocks
  • Lichens growing on rocks
  • Lichens growing on rocks
  • Lichens growing on rocks
  • Orange Lichens growing on rocks
  • Lichens growing on rocks
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Green Lichens growing on rocks on the Greek Island of Ios.
  • Green Lichens growing on rocks on the Greek Island of Ios.
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Green Lichens growing on rocks on the Greek Island of Ios.
  • Green Lichens growing on rocks on the Greek Island of Ios.
  • Crustose lichens growing on a rock on the Greek Island of Ios
  • Lichens growing on rocks
  • Lichens growing on rocks
  • Green Lichens growing on rocks on the Greek Island of Ios.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Sculpture of Lapiths and  Centaurs battling from the Metope of the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens no XXVII. Also known as the Elgin marbles. British Museum London. This is one of the most dramatic compositions of the Metopes with the Lapith preparing to make a final strike and the cloak of the Centaur fanning out
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia depicting a fallen female representing Armenia,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia depicting a fallen female representing Armenia,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   <br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia depicting a fallen female representing Armenia,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.    Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia depicting a fallen female representing Armenia,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Roman Sebastian relief sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Close up of Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia depicting a fallen female representing Armenia,  Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Nero conquering Armenia Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Nero, wearing only a cloak and sword strap, supports a slumped naked Armenia by her upper arms. She wears a soft eastern hat, and her bow and quiver are next to her. The heroic composition likens them to Achilles and the Amazon Queen Penthesilea. The inscription reads: Armenia - (Neron) Klaudios Drousos Kaisar Sebastos Germanikos.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.     Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of the Three Graces, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The Three Graces stand in their familiar hellenistic composition. They were handmaids of Aphrodite and appeared in this form on the decoration of her cult statue at Aphrodisias. Their names evoked their character: Euphrosyne (joy), Aglaia (Splendour) and Thaleia (Bloom).
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century v Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century  Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. v
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additio-nal details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey art background.
  • Gothic Altarpiece of Madonna and Child enthroned with angels byPero di Giovanni known as "Lorenzo Monaco" of Sienna and Florence, circa 1415-1420, tempera and gold leaf on wood. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC 212808.<br />
<br />
The Virgin Mary is seated with the child standing on her lap, in an attitude of blessing, accompanied by angels with incentives. The composition is very simple and fuses Sienese and Florentine pictorial traditions in the style of Lorenzo Monaco, monk of the convent of Santa Maria degli Angeli in Florence and the last representative of the style of Giotto before the Renaissance revival of Fra Angelico.
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. . MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. . MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. . MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. . MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. . MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Christ Pantocrator. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD.Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death.. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death.. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Christ Pantocrator. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Ager Apostles: James and Thaddeus<br />
<br />
Late XI - XII century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas from the Church of St. Peter Anger, Noguera, Spain.<br />
<br />
Acquisition of Museums Board's campaign in 1958. MNAC 65467<br />
<br />
Romanesque fresco ascribed to the so-called Pedret Painters of Ager.  Typical of this school is the composition or refinement in the modeling of faces with characteristic forehead, cheeks and neck, which show the quality of Painters. San Ager was one of the main centers of religious and political centres in the south of Urgell.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Christ Pantocrator. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • Romanesque painted Gia altar front<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the thirteenth century from the church of Santa Maria Gia and Xia, High Ribagorca, Huesca, Spain<br />
<br />
Acquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1932. Ref: 3902 MNAC.<br />
<br />
Romanesque painted altar front from Santa Maria Gia, Spain, showing Scenes from the life of Saint Martin. The  exceptionally the bottom frame remains the signature of the author, a painter named John (Johannes). This work is typical of the Ribagorca style and incorporates early gothic compositional styles and narrative that subtly illuminates the faces. Also typical of the Ribagorca workshop are the  decorated plaster reliefs on the entire surface of the front, which is covered with the characteristic gold leaf.
  • North Porch, Left Portal (Incarnation Portal), Tympanum- Gifts of the Magi and Dream of the Magi c 1194-1230, from the Cathedral of Chartres, France. At left is the Adoration of the Magi (Matthew 2:1)..Two Magi (crowned) stand at left, holding jars. One has a beard and the other is clean-shaven. The third Magus (bearded) kneels, handing a round object to the Christ Child, who sits on Mary's lap in the middle of the composition. Above them is the star of Bethlehem between two angels holding scrolls..At right is the Dream of the Magi. (Matthew 2:12).Two of the Magi (bearded, still crowned) lie sleeping on a bed at the lower right. The third Magus (beardless) appears behind them, with his eyes closed and his head propped up in his hand. Above is an angel with a scroll, one of the pair of angels who flank the star of Bethlehem at the top of the tympanum..Surrounding the central scene is the Inner archivolt. It contains angels holding candlesticks standing on clouds. Below The Virgin Mary (veiled) lies on a bed that is parallel to the panel plane. She raises one hand. The Christ Child (in swaddling clothes) is in a manger above the bed. Above him are the heads of the ox and the ass. They are probably a reference to Old Testament verses thought to be prophecies of the coming of the Messiah. Isaiah 1:3 says, "The ox knows his owner and the ass his maker's crib." There is a similar verse in Habakkuk. The apocryphal Protevangelium of James mentions only the ass. The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew also says that an ox and an ass worshiped the Christ Child in the manger..Above are angels leaning out of a cloud and holding a long scroll.. A UNESCO World Heritage Site. .
  • Sculpture of Lapiths and  Centaurs battling from the Metope of the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens no XXVII. Also known as the Elgin marbles. British Museum London. This is one of the most dramatic compositions of the Metopes with the Lapith preparing to make a final strike and the cloak of the Centaur fanning out
  • Sculpture of Lapiths and  Centaurs battling from the Metope of the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens no XXVII. Also known as the Elgin marbles. British Museum London. This is one of the most dramatic compositions of the Metopes with the Lapith preparing to make a final strike and the cloak of the Centaur fanning out
  • Sculpture of Lapiths and  Centaurs battling from the Metope of the Parthenon on the Acropolis of Athens no XXVII. Also known as the Elgin marbles. British Museum London. This is one of the most dramatic compositions of the Metopes with the Lapith preparing to make a final strike and the cloak of the Centaur fanning out
  • Lely's Venus (Aphrodite). 1st or 2nd cent. AD Roman copy of a Greek original. The goddess Venus id surprised whilst bathing and she nervously turns. Her hair is in the style typical of the time and her pose has been designed to be unrevealing from any angle.  British Museum exhibit, London.<br />
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.

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