• The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century v Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century  Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. v
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additio-nal details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey art background.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Grey Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Grey Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine   funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a white background
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a black background
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a grey background
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey.
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a grey art background
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Gothic panel of the (Virgin Mary) Madonna of Humility. Polychrome and gold leaf on wood, circa 1433-1435. The Virgin is seated on a cushion on the floor holding the baby Jesus. She hand a jug with roses a symbol of motherhood and purity. Behind her a gold curtain is held by three angels, while two others are sitting on the floor are playing the organ and lute. The skill of the use of light and shade and the fine brushwork points to an artist of great skill using the Quattrocento style. The piece has been identified as that described by the writer on art Giorgia Vasari in 1568 which was owned Gondi family in Florence.. Inv MNAC 212817. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic panel of the (Virgin Mary) Madonna of Humility. Polychrome and gold leaf on wood, circa 1433-1435. The Virgin is seated on a cushion on the floor holding the baby Jesus. She hand a jug with roses a symbol of motherhood and purity. Behind her a gold curtain is held by three angels, while two others are sitting on the floor are playing the organ and lute. The skill of the use of light and shade and the fine brushwork points to an artist of great skill using the Quattrocento style. The piece has been identified as that described by the writer on art Giorgia Vasari in 1568 which was owned Gondi family in Florence.. Inv MNAC 212817. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Grey Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Grey Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • High picture of the Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey  Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey  Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • High picture of the Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. white background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. white background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements de Kelescan, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements de Kelescan, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements de Kelescan, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Menec, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Menec, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Black background,<br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background;<br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. <br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Black background,<br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background;<br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Black background,<br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Ancient Egyptian decorated mari ware, class D, baked clay, Predynastic Period, Naqada II Protodynastic Period (3700-300 BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Mari was a new raw material used to make vases from Naqada II onwards. The material was a marl of rich clay found in some ancient Egyptian desert site which was pulverised and mixed with water. Typically the pottery had a rosy sinish when fired making a good background for painted motifs.
  • Ancient Egyptian decorated mari ware, class D, baked clay, Predynastic Period, Naqada II Protodynastic Period (3700-300 BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. White background.<br />
<br />
Mari was a new raw material used to make vases from Naqada II onwards. The material was a marl of rich clay found in some ancient Egyptian desert site which was pulverised and mixed with water. Typically the pottery had a rosy sinish when fired making a good background for painted motifs.
  • Ancient Egyptian decorated mari ware, class D, baked clay, Predynastic Period, Naqada II Protodynastic Period (3700-300 BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. Black background,<br />
<br />
Mari was a new raw material used to make vases from Naqada II onwards. The material was a marl of rich clay found in some ancient Egyptian desert site which was pulverised and mixed with water. Typically the pottery had a rosy sinish when fired making a good background for painted motifs.
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. white background.<br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background.<br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. <br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background.<br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. <br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum.  Black background<br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Ancientt Egyptian Book of the Dead papyrus - Spell 17 about the God Atum, Iufankh's Book of the Dead, Ptolemaic period (332-30BC).Turin Egyptian Museum. Grey Background<br />
<br />
the spell is one of the ongest in the Book of the Dead and one of its most complex frequently used in many other Books of the Dead. It is about the nature of the creator God Atum and is meant to make sure the deceased is capable of demonstrating his of her knowledge of religious secrets<br />
<br />
The translation of  Iuefankh's Book of the Dead papyrus by Richard Lepsius marked a truning point in the studies of ancient Egyptian funereal studies.
  • Minoan cly polychrome decorated storage pithos, Protopalatial period, Phaistos 1800-1650 BC; Heraklion Archaeological  Museum, grey background.<br />
<br />
The quality of Minoan pithoi of this period suggest that they were produced by specialised potters with considerable skill in the manufacture of large clay conatiners. They were used for the staorage of agricultural products and the number and size of the pithoi found during this Portopalatial period indicate increased production of farmers.
  • Minoan cly polychrome decorated storage pithos, Protopalatial period, Phaistos 1800-1650 BC; Heraklion Archaeological  Museum.<br />
<br />
The quality of Minoan pithoi of this period suggest that they were produced by specialised potters with considerable skill in the manufacture of large clay conatiners. They were used for the staorage of agricultural products and the number and size of the pithoi found during this Portopalatial period indicate increased production of farmers.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub larnax decorated with a stylised crocus flower ,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum, white background.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub larnax decorated with a stylised crocus flower ,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum, grey background.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub  larnax decorated with stylised octopuses,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum, white background.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub  larnax decorated with stylised octopuses,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub  larnax decorated with a cow nursing a calf,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum, grey background.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub  larnax decorated with a cow nursing a calf,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum, black background.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Early Minoan Stone jspouted bowl from the George of the Dead 3000-2000 BC BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum , black background.<br />
<br />
In the 3rd milleneum BC the invetion of new tools made of metal allowed stone to be carved and polished to high standards. Harder stone could also be used for making stone vessels
  • Early Minoan Stone jspouted bowl from the George of the Dead 3000-2000 BC BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum , grey background.<br />
<br />
In the 3rd milleneum BC the invetion of new tools made of metal allowed stone to be carved and polished to high standards. Harder stone could also be used for making stone vessels
  • Minoan brazier cult vessel for burning offerings with charcoal,  1400-1350 BC,  Heraklion Archaeological  Museum .<br />
<br />
These brazier cult vessels were used to burn offerings in the chamber tombs for purification
  • Minoan fresco panel from the 'Lily Frescoes' from the 'Villa of the Lilies' Amnisos, 1600-1500 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  Grey Background. <br />
<br />
Ths freco depicts white lilies against a red background and red lilies against w white backgoround with long stems in front of a fence. The wall art uses fresco and 'in cavo' technique. Neopalatial Period.
  • The Minoan 'Partridge Fresco', wall art from the  'Guset House' Knossos Palace, 1600-140 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  White Background. <br />
<br />
This Minoan fresco was painted in vivid colours using fine brush strokes and colour gradients. It portrays partridges , commonly found in Crete, among rocks and thopical Cretian flora. It decorated the pavillion in the so called 'Guset House' or 'Caravanserai.
  • Minoan fresco panel from the 'Lily Frescoes' from the 'Villa of the Lilies' Amnisos, 1600-1500 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  Grey Background. <br />
<br />
Ths freco depicts white lilies against a red background and red lilies against w white backgoround with long stems in front of a fence. The wall art uses fresco and 'in cavo' technique. Neopalatial Period.
  • Minoan fresco panel from the 'Lily Frescoes' from the 'Villa of the Lilies' Amnisos, 1600-1500 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  Grey Background. <br />
<br />
Ths freco depicts white lilies against a red background and red lilies against w white backgoround with long stems in front of a fence. The wall art uses fresco and 'in cavo' technique. Neopalatial Period.
  • Minoan fresco panel from the 'Lily Frescoes' from the 'Villa of the Lilies' Amnisos, 1600-1500 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  White Background. <br />
<br />
Ths freco depicts white lilies against a red background and red lilies against w white backgoround with long stems in front of a fence. The wall art uses fresco and 'in cavo' technique. Neopalatial Period.
  • Terra cotta Mycenaean cult figurines with raised arms found at Delphi,  1400-1050 BC, Delphi National Archaeological Museum.  Against white.<br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Terra cotta Mycenaean cult figurines with raised arms found at Delphi,  1400-1050 BC, Delphi National Archaeological Museum. <br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Minoan Theran style strainer jar decorated with lilies on a dark background, Akrotiri, Thira (Santorini) National Archaeological Museum Athens. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
This style of strainer jar is characteristic of Theran Minoan pottery also found on Minoan Crete. A strainer incorporated into the jar probably allowed it to be used in the manufacture of aramatic oils or as an incense burner.
  • Minoan Theran style strainer jar decorated with lilies on a dark background, Akrotiri, Thira (Santorini) National Archaeological Museum Athens. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
This style of strainer jar is characteristic of Theran Minoan pottery also found on Minoan Crete. A strainer incorporated into the jar probably allowed it to be used in the manufacture of aramatic oils or as an incense burner.
  • Minoan Theran style strainer jar decorated with lilies on a dark background, Akrotiri, Thira (Santorini) National Archaeological Museum Athens. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
This style of strainer jar is characteristic of Theran Minoan pottery also found on Minoan Crete. A strainer incorporated into the jar probably allowed it to be used in the manufacture of aramatic oils or as an incense burner.
  • Cycladic Kernos a multiple vessel in a base.  Early Cycladic III (2300-2000 BC) , Phylakopi, Melos. National Archaeological Museum Athens. Cat No 5829.  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
This complex vessel was used for ritual offerings. During this period pottery was plainer with simple geometric decorations. Depicts of birds or lowers were rare.
  • Cycladic Kernos a multiple vessel in a base.  Early Cycladic III (2300-2000 BC) , Phylakopi, Melos. National Archaeological Museum Athens. Cat No 5829.<br />
<br />
This complex vessel was used for ritual offerings. During this period pottery was plainer with simple geometric decorations. Depicts of birds or lowers were rare.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied star decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5153.  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied star decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5164.  Grey background.<br />
<br />
<br />
In the middle of the decoration is a disc surrounded by a triangle motif. Above the handle is incised a pubic triangle.<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied linear decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5012.  Gray background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5058.  Grey background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5058.  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5058.  Gray background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens,  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens,<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied boat and spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5053.  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
The incisions depict a boat below spiral patternes. <br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied boat and spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5053. Black background.<br />
<br />
<br />
The incisions depict a boat below spiral patternes. <br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied boat and spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 4974.   Grey background.<br />
<br />
<br />
Yje incised decorations depict a boat amongst spiral formed waves. The boats is of a Ctcladic design  found throughout the Aegean.<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Hollow Mycenaean female figurine, adorant, wearing a necklace, from Mycenae tomb 40, Archaeological Museum Athens. Cat No 2494. <br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Upper part of a Mycenaean female figurine with stylised arms wearing a necklace, from Mycenae tomb 101, Archaeological Museum Athens. Cat No 4690.  Black Background<br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Upper part of a Mycenaean female figurine with stylised arms wearing a necklace, from Mycenae tomb 101, Archaeological Museum Athens. Cat No 4690.  Grey Background<br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Odeon (Concert-hall) seating  around 1700 people. It was used also as the Bouleuterion for the meetings of the Senate and remained in this form until the early fifth century.<br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Io and Argos Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.     Against a white background.<br />
<br />
A powerful hero is folding a sword gazing closely at a half naked and dishevelled young heroine who sits on a chest like stool. Between, on a pillar base stood a small, separately added statue of a goddess ( now missing). The scene follows a scheme used in the relief panels “Io guarded by Argos”. Io was one of Zeus’s lovers, and Argos was a watchful giant sent to guard her by Hera, Zeus’s wife.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Io and Argos Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
A powerful hero is folding a sword gazing closely at a half naked and dishevelled young heroine who sits on a chest like stool. Between, on a pillar base stood a small, separately added statue of a goddess ( now missing). The scene follows a scheme used in the relief panels “Io guarded by Argos”. Io was one of Zeus’s lovers, and Argos was a watchful giant sent to guard her by Hera, Zeus’s wife.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Io and Argos Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
A powerful hero is folding a sword gazing closely at a half naked and dishevelled young heroine who sits on a chest like stool. Between, on a pillar base stood a small, separately added statue of a goddess ( now missing). The scene follows a scheme used in the relief panels “Io guarded by Argos”. Io was one of Zeus’s lovers, and Argos was a watchful giant sent to guard her by Hera, Zeus’s wife.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of  Herakles is preparing to wrestle the Libyan giant Antaios. Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Herakles (left) is taking off his bow case to hang it on a pillar statue. Antaios (right) is binding up his head with ear protectors, next to him stands an oil basin used in the palaistra (wrestling ground). Antaios was a famous wrestler who challenged and killed all visitors to his country, until he was defeated by Herakles.
  • Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of  Herakles is preparing to wrestle the Libyan giant Antaios. Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.<br />
<br />
Herakles (left) is taking off his bow case to hang it on a pillar statue. Antaios (right) is binding up his head with ear protectors, next to him stands an oil basin used in the palaistra (wrestling ground). Antaios was a famous wrestler who challenged and killed all visitors to his country, until he was defeated by Herakles.
  • Wide picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Wide picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting hunters with a dead boar and hunters making an offering at an altar, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting deer being caught in a net trap, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting offerings being made at an altar, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting a hare about to be speared,  room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the Diaeta of Arione used as a poetry and music room, room no 39 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Diaeta of Arione is a large room of the Villa Romana del Casale where the Domina ( mistress of the Villa) gathered with members of the family to listen to poetry and music in a private setting. The floor mosaic depicts scenes of the marine court of Arione.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the Room of the Chidrens's Hunt depicting children hunting animals, room no 44 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Roman mosaic on the floor of the cubicle of the Child Hunt in the Villa Romana del Casale is divided into three registers with a floral theme.<br />
<br />
In the first register boys are spearing a hare with a venabulum ( spear) while to their right another boy has trapped a duckling. <br />
<br />
In the second register tree young hunters are portrayed being attacked by animals, one boy has fallen down having been bitten on the calf by a weasel. The boy in the middle has his hands raised calling for help and to his right a boy is about to be attacked bu a cockerel.<br />
<br />
In the lower register a boy is holding a raised club about to hit a peacock while another boy is spearing a goat and another is using a shield to protect himself from a Great Bustard.
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the room of the Small Circus depicting Roman boys riding small chariots pulled by birds in a small circus, The Vestibule of The Smnall Circus, room no 41  at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Roman mosaic know as the Small Circus at the Villa Romana del Casale depicts a scene of a chariot race from the Circus Maximus in Rome. Two wheeled chariots, driven by children,  are racing around a central Pina (barrier) being drawn by fowl and web footed birds. The four chariots represent the four factions that raced against each other at the Circus and the tunics of the cild charioteers and the birds pulling their chariots are distinguished by the four different colours used by each faction.
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the room of the Small Circus depicting Roman boys riding small chariots pulled by birds in a small circus, The Vestibule of The Smnall Circus, room no 41  at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Roman mosaic know as the Small Circus at the Villa Romana del Casale depicts a scene of a chariot race from the Circus Maximus in Rome. Two wheeled chariots, driven by children,  are racing around a central Pina (barrier) being drawn by fowl and web footed birds. The four chariots represent the four factions that raced against each other at the Circus and the tunics of the cild charioteers and the birds pulling their chariots are distinguished by the four different colours used by each faction.

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