• The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century v Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century  Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. v
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additio-nal details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey art background.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • Altar of Esquius - Painted wooden panel<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
<br />
Probably comes from the ancient Chapel of Santa Maria of Besora Castle <br />
<br />
Aquired by the National Art Museum of Catalonia, Barcelona 1958. Ref: 65502 MNAC.<br />
<br />
<br />
The use of valuable pigments (lapis lazuli, orpiment, cinabri) on the Altar panel, suggests that this front was painted in an important monastery scriptorium like Ripoll. The poetic inscription that runs around the mandorla surrounding Christ is very characteristic of the intellectual environment of Ripoll "This is the God of Alfa and Omega. Come, O merciful with Your mercy, and remove the chains of missery. Amen." This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. The rest of the panel depicts the 12 apostles.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Grey Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan bronze statue portraying a nearly life size young warrior dressed in armour, offering a libation of wine to a divinity ( patera style cup missing) Made in the 5th century BC in Orvieto and excavated from Todi where it had been buried after being struck by lightening, which was the custom at the time.  Inv 13886, The Vatican Museums Rome. Grey Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine   funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.   Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • The Spring fresco Minoan Wall painting from Akrotiri, National archaeological Musuem Athens Minoan artefact. 17th-16th cent BC.<br />
<br />
The Minoan 'Spring Fresco' is the only fresco found in situ at Akritiri covering three walls. It depicts the rocky Theran lanscape of Santorini before the volcanic eruption: clusetrs of red lilies with yellow stems dominate the red and grey volcanic rock formations. Swallows swoop above, either alone or in pairs animating the scene and announcing natures annual rebirth of Spring.<br />
<br />
The Spring fresco has an opulent use of colours and a lively movement bu the lilies swaying in the wind as well as the swallows at play. Room D2 Complex D.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Close up picture of the Roman mosaics of the Peristyle depicting animals in a geometric mosaic wreath inside square panels, room no 13 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The peristyle mosaic floor of Villa Romana del Casale is decorated with square mosaic repeating designs which have a rope design geometric mosaic on the outside, inside which is are laurel wreath mosaics which surround Protomas, the representation of the head and neck of an animal often used decoratively in architecture, of wild and domesticated animals. The two sides of the peristyle have been identified as one side for visitors use and the other for the family. The peristyle mosaics lead on both sides around three sides of the peristyle to steps that lead up to the corridor of the Great Hunt Mosaics,
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a white background
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a black background
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a grey background
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey.
  • Hittite monumental relief sculpture of a man with an axe in one hand about to use it to kill a lion he is holding updide down in his other hand. Late Hittite Period - 900-700 BC. Adana Archaeology Museum, Turkey. Against a grey art background
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Gothic panel of the (Virgin Mary) Madonna of Humility. Polychrome and gold leaf on wood, circa 1433-1435. The Virgin is seated on a cushion on the floor holding the baby Jesus. She hand a jug with roses a symbol of motherhood and purity. Behind her a gold curtain is held by three angels, while two others are sitting on the floor are playing the organ and lute. The skill of the use of light and shade and the fine brushwork points to an artist of great skill using the Quattrocento style. The piece has been identified as that described by the writer on art Giorgia Vasari in 1568 which was owned Gondi family in Florence.. Inv MNAC 212817. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic panel of the (Virgin Mary) Madonna of Humility. Polychrome and gold leaf on wood, circa 1433-1435. The Virgin is seated on a cushion on the floor holding the baby Jesus. She hand a jug with roses a symbol of motherhood and purity. Behind her a gold curtain is held by three angels, while two others are sitting on the floor are playing the organ and lute. The skill of the use of light and shade and the fine brushwork points to an artist of great skill using the Quattrocento style. The piece has been identified as that described by the writer on art Giorgia Vasari in 1568 which was owned Gondi family in Florence.. Inv MNAC 212817. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Grey Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan Terracotta sarcophagus lid with a female figure reclining, first half of 2nd century BC, inv 15428, The Vatican Museums Rome, Grey Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • High picture of the Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey  Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • High picture of the Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Black Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey  Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. White Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Etruscan funerary monument  known as  Adonis Dying, late 3rd century BC, made of terracotta and discovered near Tuscania, inv 14147, The Vatican Museums, Rome. Grey art Background. For use in non editorial advertising apply to the Vatican Museums for a license.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. white background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. white background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • Ancient Egyptian Sarcophagus coffin of Tamutmutef, chantress of Amun, 18th Dynasty, (1550 to 1292 BC), Thebes. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
The Tamutmutef sarcophagus belongs to a group of 18th Dynasty coffins characterised by the representation of the deceased wearing everyday clothes instead of as a mummy. It is carved in relief to reveal the pleated linen dress eith arms and feet sticking out from the pleats of the cloth. This coffin may have been reused from earlier use updated with dense yellow decorations.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements de Kelescan, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements de Kelescan, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Menec, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Menec, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Black background,<br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Ancient Egyptian decorated mari ware, class D, baked clay, Predynastic Period, Naqada II Protodynastic Period (3700-300 BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey Background<br />
<br />
Mari was a new raw material used to make vases from Naqada II onwards. The material was a marl of rich clay found in some ancient Egyptian desert site which was pulverised and mixed with water. Typically the pottery had a rosy sinish when fired making a good background for painted motifs.
  • Ancient Egyptian decorated mari ware, class D, baked clay, Predynastic Period, Naqada II Protodynastic Period (3700-300 BC). Egyptian Museum, Turin. White background.<br />
<br />
Mari was a new raw material used to make vases from Naqada II onwards. The material was a marl of rich clay found in some ancient Egyptian desert site which was pulverised and mixed with water. Typically the pottery had a rosy sinish when fired making a good background for painted motifs.
  • Ancient Egyptian statue of Hel, limestone, New Kingdom, late 18th Dynasty, (1320-1280 BC), Saqqara. Egyptian Museum, Turin. <br />
<br />
The women is seated on a cushioned stool. On her head is a lotus flower. In her left hand she holds a cloth in her right a counterweight for a meant necklace, a ritual instrument used in the cult of the goddess Hathor. the statue probably stood in a tomb in Saqqara necropolis of Memphis, where the Egyptian eletes of the time had splendid tombs with statues of s similar style. The inscription evokes the deceased "everything that comes forth in the presence of the gods of Memphis for Osiris, the lady of Hel..."
  • Minoan cly polychrome decorated storage pithos, Protopalatial period, Phaistos 1800-1650 BC; Heraklion Archaeological  Museum.<br />
<br />
The quality of Minoan pithoi of this period suggest that they were produced by specialised potters with considerable skill in the manufacture of large clay conatiners. They were used for the staorage of agricultural products and the number and size of the pithoi found during this Portopalatial period indicate increased production of farmers.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub  larnax decorated with stylised octopuses,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Minoan  pottery bath tub  larnax decorated with a cow nursing a calf,  Episkopi-Lerapetra 1350-1250 BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum, black background.<br />
<br />
To the Greeks, the Underworld was entered by water. As with many other Minoan bathtubs, this one was probably later used as a coffin to convey the deceased across the sea, where marine imagery would be equally appropriate. The two functions of bathtubs, bathing and burial, combine in the story of Agamemnon who, on return from Troy, was murdered by his wife and her lover in a silver bath.
  • Early Minoan Stone jspouted bowl from the George of the Dead 3000-2000 BC BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum , black background.<br />
<br />
In the 3rd milleneum BC the invetion of new tools made of metal allowed stone to be carved and polished to high standards. Harder stone could also be used for making stone vessels
  • Early Minoan Stone jspouted bowl from the George of the Dead 3000-2000 BC BC, Heraklion Archaeological  Museum , grey background.<br />
<br />
In the 3rd milleneum BC the invetion of new tools made of metal allowed stone to be carved and polished to high standards. Harder stone could also be used for making stone vessels
  • Minoan fresco panel from the 'Lily Frescoes' from the 'Villa of the Lilies' Amnisos, 1600-1500 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  Grey Background. <br />
<br />
Ths freco depicts white lilies against a red background and red lilies against w white backgoround with long stems in front of a fence. The wall art uses fresco and 'in cavo' technique. Neopalatial Period.
  • The Minoan 'Partridge Fresco', wall art from the  'Guset House' Knossos Palace, 1600-140 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  White Background. <br />
<br />
This Minoan fresco was painted in vivid colours using fine brush strokes and colour gradients. It portrays partridges , commonly found in Crete, among rocks and thopical Cretian flora. It decorated the pavillion in the so called 'Guset House' or 'Caravanserai.
  • Minoan fresco panel from the 'Lily Frescoes' from the 'Villa of the Lilies' Amnisos, 1600-1500 BC. Heraklion Archaeological Museum.  Grey Background. <br />
<br />
Ths freco depicts white lilies against a red background and red lilies against w white backgoround with long stems in front of a fence. The wall art uses fresco and 'in cavo' technique. Neopalatial Period.
  • Terra cotta Mycenaean cult figurines with raised arms found at Delphi,  1400-1050 BC, Delphi National Archaeological Museum.  Against white.<br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Terra cotta Mycenaean cult figurines with raised arms found at Delphi,  1400-1050 BC, Delphi National Archaeological Museum. <br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Cycladic Kernos a multiple vessel in a base.  Early Cycladic III (2300-2000 BC) , Phylakopi, Melos. National Archaeological Museum Athens. Cat No 5829.  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
This complex vessel was used for ritual offerings. During this period pottery was plainer with simple geometric decorations. Depicts of birds or lowers were rare.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied star decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5153.  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied linear decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5012.  Gray background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5058.  Grey background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens,  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied boat and spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 5053.  White background.<br />
<br />
<br />
The incisions depict a boat below spiral patternes. <br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Cycladic terracotta 'frying pan' with incied boat and spiral decoration from Chalandriani, Syros. Early Cycladic period II 2800-2300 BC), National Archaeological Museum Athens, Cat No 4974.   Grey background.<br />
<br />
<br />
Yje incised decorations depict a boat amongst spiral formed waves. The boats is of a Ctcladic design  found throughout the Aegean.<br />
<br />
These so called 'frying pans' wre created by the Keros-Syros culture and are their useage is uncertain. The compex geometric patterns on their bases suggest that they may have had some symbolic meaning and were used in religious of magical rituals. They could also have served practical purposes being used as dishes, mirror mounts, astrolabes or metris measured for salt traders.
  • Hollow Mycenaean female figurine, adorant, wearing a necklace, from Mycenae tomb 40, Archaeological Museum Athens. Cat No 2494. <br />
<br />
Stylised female figurines were common in the Mycenaean world and may have represented deities , divine nurses or worshipers. these Mycenaean female figurines were probably used as voitive offering and maybe as childrens toys.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Io and Argos Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.     Against a white background.<br />
<br />
A powerful hero is folding a sword gazing closely at a half naked and dishevelled young heroine who sits on a chest like stool. Between, on a pillar base stood a small, separately added statue of a goddess ( now missing). The scene follows a scheme used in the relief panels “Io guarded by Argos”. Io was one of Zeus’s lovers, and Argos was a watchful giant sent to guard her by Hera, Zeus’s wife.
  • Wide picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting hunters with a dead boar and hunters making an offering at an altar, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting deer being caught in a net trap, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting a hare about to be speared,  room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
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The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Roman mosaics - The Gypsy Girls. The House of Menad. Ancient Zeugama, 2nd - 3rd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
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It was discovered in the building called the House of Menad during the excavations conducted by the Gaziantep Museum. As the excavations continued, it was understood that almost all the mosaics inside the building had been stolen by historical _artifact; traffickers. The figure, called the Gypsy. Girl, was fortunately under the soil extracted from the illegal diggings and unseen by the traffickers; then it was brought to our Museum. She was liken to a Gypsy Girl as a joke during the excavations when she was unearthed with her uncombed hair, salient cheekbones, round face and earrings, and then has kept to be called with that name. <br />
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There is no illuminating data regarding her identity but some scholrs claim that she is one of the -mnads present in  Dionysus festivals because of the tendrils near her 1.71eado, and others suggest that this is a portrait of Alexander the Great The most interesting feature of the mosaic is that it follows the beholder in every direction. A special technique was used in the mosaic in order to make her eyes more realistic. On the other hand, the fact that both joy and sorrow are reflected in her face indicates the stage reached in the art of portx4it. <br />
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The piece was made, via the technique -called "three look" in the art of painting during the Hellenistic period. This technique was used by great painters as well. Da vincrs'Mona Lisa is an example for such paintings. With those characteristics, the piece has become the symbol of Zeugma and Gaziantep
  • Roman Mosaic - The Oceanos & Tethys Mosaic, fom The House of Oceanos, Zeugma.  2nd - 3rd century AD. Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.<br />
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The Oceanos and Tethys Mosaic is the floor mosaic of the shallow pool of the House of Oceanos. In this mosaic, which belongs to the Early Roman Empire Period, Oceanos, the river god who is the origin of life, and his wife Tethys are represented. At the middle of the mosaic which is surrounded by a geometric triple tress borders there are Oceanos and his wife Tethys. Around them there are Eros figures riding various species of fish and dolphins symbolising the abundance of the sea. The most represented attributes of Oceanos are snake and fish.<br />
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 in the mosaic, Oceanos is seen with chelas. Those chelas are among his most characteristic attributes. Though the tail of an eel is represented as his feet in the figures on ceramics, within the scope of the art of mosaic he is represented as a bust and only with the chelas on his head such as this one. His wife Tethys is right by his side and represented with wings upon her forehead. Between them, there is the dragon called Cetos which is a mythological sea creature. As is seen in the coins of Zeugma, the Euphrates River is expressed as a dragon. Besides these two figures, on the top-right of the mosaic, there is a young male figure which is thought to be Pan, the patron of fishermen and shepherds. The fact that Eros figures and Pan which are the side figures are located outward implies that the pool is built to allow walking around. <br />
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The expression of the Oceanos as not an ocean but a river surrounding the world: By that the water, which vapours with the heat of the sun and then gives life to the nature by becoming rain, and which after being used by the nature reaches again the sea via the rivers is expressed. The water becomes aware of itself and its function by that cycle. This phenomenon is represented in the mosaic panel as the diversification of Ocenaos through unification wit
  • Roman sarcophagus with garland reliefs sculptures, 3rd century AD made in Laodicea on the Lycus from Hierapolis Necropolis . Hierapolis Archaeology Museum, Turkey<br />
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Sarcophagus With Garland.<br />
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They were widely used in the valley of Menderes from the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. The Nike on the edges and the Eros in the middle of the long sides carry the garlands. There are Medusa masks on the upper spaces of the garlands, sometimes the portraits of the owners of the tombs and some mythological descriptions take place here. Medusa masks symbolise the protection of the tomb where as the garlands symbolise the meeting of the owner in the other world. Ostoteks are also made in the some manner. . Against an white background
  • Roman sarcophagus with garland reliefs sculptures, 3rd century AD made in Laodicea on the Lycus from Hierapolis Necropolis . Hierapolis Archaeology Museum, Turkey<br />
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Sarcophagus With Garland.<br />
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They were widely used in the valley of Menderes from the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. The Nike on the edges and the Eros in the middle of the long sides carry the garlands. There are Medusa masks on the upper spaces of the garlands, sometimes the portraits of the owners of the tombs and some mythological descriptions take place here. Medusa masks symbolise the protection of the tomb where as the garlands symbolise the meeting of the owner in the other world. Ostoteks are also made in the some manner. . Against a grey background
  • Roman sarcophagus with garland reliefs sculptures, 3rd century AD made in Laodicea on the Lycus from Hierapolis Necropolis . Hierapolis Archaeology Museum, Turkey<br />
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Sarcophagus With Garland.<br />
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They were widely used in the valley of Menderes from the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. The Nike on the edges and the Eros in the middle of the long sides carry the garlands. There are Medusa masks on the upper spaces of the garlands, sometimes the portraits of the owners of the tombs and some mythological descriptions take place here. Medusa masks symbolise the protection of the tomb where as the garlands symbolise the meeting of the owner in the other world. Ostoteks are also made in the some manner. Against an art background
  • Roman sarcophagus with garland reliefs sculptures, 3rd century AD made in Laodicea on the Lycus from Hierapolis Necropolis . Hierapolis Archaeology Museum, Turkey<br />
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Sarcophagus With Garland.<br />
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They were widely used in the valley of Menderes from the beginning of the 2nd century A.D. The Nike on the edges and the Eros in the middle of the long sides carry the garlands. There are Medusa masks on the upper spaces of the garlands, sometimes the portraits of the owners of the tombs and some mythological descriptions take place here. Medusa masks symbolise the protection of the tomb where as the garlands symbolise the meeting of the owner in the other world. Ostoteks are also made in the some manner.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
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The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
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The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic from Leptis Minus-Lemto in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sehel Region) dedicated to Cresconius, depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). <br />
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The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
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In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
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The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
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The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .   <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .    Against a grey background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  Against a white background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  Against a black background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Painted Domestic Pine in the Roman fresco of a garden from Villa Livia (Early first century AD), Rome, Livia was the wife of Roman emperor Augustus.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
Trees and shrubs had symbolic importance to the Romans as can be see by the plants used in the trompe-l’œil frescoes from the Villa Livia, Rome, which contains plants linked to the deities particularily venerated by Augustus and Livia. <br />
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Domestic pine: present in the mystery rites of Cybele, Attis and Dionysus. Laurel: sacred to Apollo, symbol of triumph, it recalls the famous prodigy associated with Livia Drusilla.
  • Painted Fruit Tress in the Roman fresco of a garden from Villa Livia (Early first century AD), Rome, Livia was the wife of Roman emperor Augustus.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
Trees and shrubs had symbolic importance to the Romans as can be see by the plants used in the trompe-l’œil frescoes from the Villa Livia, Rome, which contains plants linked to the deities particularily venerated by Augustus and Livia.
  • Underground Etruscan tomb Known as "Tomba delle Leonesse". A single chamber with double sloping ceiling decorated with a painted chequered design. Six painted columns divide the walls to give the tomb the appearance of a pavillion. In the typanium of the back wall are two lionesses below which is a large Krater used to mix water and wine, flanked by two musicians and a female dancer.  Circa 520 BC. Excavated 1874, Etruscan Necropolis of Monterozzi, Monte del Calvario, Tarquinia, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  • A late 4th early 3rd century B.C Etruscan Kernos, or a ceramic ring eith cups or vases, which may have been used in religious rituals, made in Teano, inv 83957, National Archaeological Museum Florence, Italy , against grey
  • Close up of an end of 7th to start of 6th century B.C Etruscan lid in the shape of a head of a Canopo style vase, used to hold funereal ashes from Chiusi, inv 94610, National Archaeological Museum Florence, Italy , black background
  • Close up of an end of 7th to start of 6th century B.C Etruscan lid in the shape of a head of a Canopo style vase, used to hold funereal ashes from Chiusi, inv 94610, National Archaeological Museum Florence, Italy , grey art background
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Photo of Roman relief sculpture, Aphrodisias, Turkey, Images of Roman art bas reliefs.  Herakles is preparing to wrestle the Libyan giant Antaios. Herakles (left) is taking off his bow case to hang it on a pillar statue. Antaios (right) is binding up his head with ear protectors, next to him stands an oil basin used in the palaistra (wrestling ground). Antaios was a famous wrestler who challenged and killed all visitors to his country, until he was defeated by Herakles.
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Athena (Roman Minerva) Sitting - from the Augustan period circa 63-43 BC the statue is a copy of a  5th century BC Greek  original, found in a palace on the Via Marmorato off the piazza dell’Emporio, Rome. The statue represents the goddess Minerva, dressed in chiton and himation which covers her head. The face and neck, now lost, have been substituted by a plaster cast of the Athena Carpegna. The aegis with the gorge emblem on her breast have enabled the goddess to be identified as Athena, the Roman Minerva, genially depicted in the guise of a helmeted female warrior. Its remarkable size suggests that this was a cult image, although a hypothesis remains linking it to the temple of Minerva on the Aventine. The sculpture bears the hallmark of a second of the 5th century BC Hellenistic Greek statue  made by Phidias. but uses different materials from the original which would have been in gold and ivory .National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Heyl Statue of Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love. 2nd century terracotta from the Heyl collection. This statuette is one of the most beautiful examples of ancient terracotta statues in existence. The close fitting robe or the goddess of love has slipped from her shoulders, her raised left leg perhaps stood on a pillar. The front of the figure, which was shaped in a mould, was carved using a modelling scraper and finally painted. Altes Museum Berlin
  • Heyl Statue of Aphrodite, Greek goddess of love. 2nd century terracotta from the Heyl collection. This statuette is one of the most beautiful examples of ancient terracotta statues in existence. The close fitting robe or the goddess of love has slipped from her shoulders, her raised left leg perhaps stood on a pillar. The front of the figure, which was shaped in a mould, was carved using a modelling scraper and finally painted. Altes Museum Berlin
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Ksar Ouled Soltane, a traditional Berber and Arab fortified adobe vaulted granary cellars, or ghorfas, situated on the edge of the northern Sahara in the Tataouine district. Tunisia, Africa. Used as a film set Star Wars: The Phantom Menace as the slave quarters of Mos Espa where the character Anakin Skywalker lived as a boy.
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Photo of Roman relief sculpture, Aphrodisias, Turkey, Images of Roman art bas reliefs.  Herakles is preparing to wrestle the Libyan giant Antaios. Herakles (left) is taking off his bow case to hang it on a pillar statue. Antaios (right) is binding up his head with ear protectors, next to him stands an oil basin used in the palaistra (wrestling ground). Antaios was a famous wrestler who challenged and killed all visitors to his country, until he was defeated by Herakles.
  • Roman stones left in the old forum and used in the foundations of  the Byzantine St Donat's Church
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, Alignements du Kermario, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of Carnac neolthic standing stones monaliths, a pre-Celtic site of standing stomes used from 4500 to 2000 BC,<br />
<br />
Carnac is famous as the site of more than 10,000 Neolithic standing stones, also known as menhirs. The stones were hewn from local rock and erected by the pre-Celtic people of Brittany. The Carnac stones were erected during the Neolithic period which lasted from around 4500 BC until 2000 BC. One interpretation of the site is that successive generations visited the site to erect a stone in honour of their ancestors.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.
  • View of neolthic Castlerigg Stone Circle monaliths and the Lake District, England,  built circa 2500 BC.<br />
<br />
Castlerigg Stone Circle was built around 4500 years ago by prehistoric farming communities who settles in the fertile valleys of the Lake District.  Current thinking has linked Castlerigg with the Neolithic Langdale axe industry in the nearby Langdale fells: the circle may have been a meeting place where these axes were traded or exchanged. Ritually deposited stone axes have been found all over Britain, suggesting that their uses went far beyond their practical capabilities. Exchange or trading of stone axes may not have been possible without first taking part in a ritual or ceremony.

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