• The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • The Roman Theatre of Aspendos, Turkey.  Built in 155 AD during the rule of Marcus Aurelius, Aspendos Theatre is the best preserved ancient theatre in Asia Minor. 96 metres in diameter it can seat 7000 the csaenae frond or backdrop wall is still intact. Following Hellenistic traditions the theatre is built into the hillside below the Acropolis.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from   The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
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 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman Fresco of a fruit from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman Fresco with a fight scene between octopus, lobster and eel, 125-150 AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 463Z4.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Excavated from the Porto di San Paolo near the Via Portuense, these frescoes decorated the thermal area of a suburban Roman Villa. The reconstructed fresco fragments, depict a group of three fighting animals: an octopus (octopus vulgaris) clutches a moray eel (muraena helena) and a lobster (palinurus vulgaris) in its tentacles; around them mud mullets (mullus barbatus) and rock mullets (mullus surmuletus) try to escape. Incriptions on the frescoes suggesy that the villa owner was from Alexandria where this style of nautical mosaic and fresco  decorations is found.
  • Roman Fresco detail of fishes marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .   <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .    Against a grey background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Painted Fruit Tress in the Roman fresco of a garden from Villa Livia (Early first century AD), Rome, Livia was the wife of Roman emperor Augustus.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
Trees and shrubs had symbolic importance to the Romans as can be see by the plants used in the trompe-l’œil frescoes from the Villa Livia, Rome, which contains plants linked to the deities particularily venerated by Augustus and Livia.
  • Gothic decorative painted beam panels with griffins and a carved syalise tree, Tempera on wood. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic decorative painted beam panels with gknights on horses, Tempera on wood. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic statue of The Virgin Mary (Madonna) holding the baby Jesus. Polychrome and gold leaf on wood by the Circle of Gil de Siloe around 1500, probably from Castella. Inv MNAC 64028. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain. Against a black background.
  • Gothic altarpiece of Madonna Of Humility With The Eternal Father In Glory, by Cenni di Francesco di Ser Cenni of Florence, circa 1375-80, tempera and gold leaf on wood. The Madonna and Child are depicted with the 12 apostles. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  212805. Against a white background.
  • Gothic altarpiece depicting the Last Supper (Sant Sopar) by Jaume Huguet, circa 1463 - 1475, Temperal and gold leaf on wood, from the convent of Sant Augusti Vell, Barcelona.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  40412. Against a art background.
  • Gothic Catalan altarpiece of the martydom of Sant Vicenc (Saint Vincent), by Jaume Huguet of Barcelona, circa 1455-1460, tempera and gold leaf on wood, from the church of San Vicenc de Sarria, Barcelona..  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC 15866. Against a grey art background.
  • Gothic altarpiece depicting top, Calvary, bottom, St Sebastia (Sebastian) , by Joan Mates of Villafranca de Penedes, circa 1417-1425, from the refrectory of Pia Almoina, Barcelona, Temperal and gold leaf on wood.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  32340. Joan Mates was a Spanish painter of the International Gothic style. Against a white background.
  • Gothic altarpiece of Saint Peter and Saint Paul by Mestre de Soriguerola, 14th century, tempera and gold leaf on for wood, from the church of Sant Cristofol de Toses, Ripolles, Spain.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC 35700. Against a white background.
  • Gothic Altarpiece of the Madonna Nursing or Madonna Lactans, by Ramon de Mur, active around Tarrega and Montblanc circa 1412-1435, tempera and gold leaf on for wood, from the parish church of Santa Maria de Cervera (Segarra),  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  15818. Against a grey art background.
  • Gothic altarpiece of Madonna and Child by Niccolo di Tommaso, circa 1362-1367, tempera and gold leaf on wood.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  212809. Against a art background.
  • Gothic wooden statue of Madonna and Child from Bohemia, circa 1530-1540, tempera and gold leaf on wood,.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  65506.
  • Gothic wooden statue of Madonna and Child from Bohemia, circa 1530-1540, tempera and gold leaf on wood,.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  65506. Against a art background.
  • Gothic wooden statue of Madonna and Child by Seguidor de Diego de Siloe of Burgos, circa 1530-1540, tempera and gold leaf on wood, from the church of San Miguel de Medina del Campo, Valladolid..  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  131050. Against a white background.
  • Gothic wooden statue of Sant Joan Evangelista (John the Evangelist) from Gremany, circa 1500, tempera and gold leaf on wood.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  64114. Against a white background.
  • Gothic wooden statue of Sant Joan Evangelista (John the Evangelist) from Gremany, circa 1500, tempera and gold leaf on wood.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  64114. Against a grey textured background.
  • Gothic altarpiece depicting left to right - the Archangel Gabriel, the martyrdom of Santa Eulalia and St Caterina, by Bernat Martorell, circa 1442-1445, Temperal and gold leaf on wood.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  1442.
  • Gothic Panel from the tomb of the Knight Sancho Sanchez Carillo . Polychrome and gold leaf on wood by the Circle of Gil de Siloe around 1500, probably from Castella. Inv MNAC 64028. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain. Against a light grey background.
  • Gothic embossed Brass on wood box, circa 1370-1450, possibly made in Barcelona, Catalunya. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC 5361. Against a black background.
  • Gothic Altarpiece of the Archangel Gabriel by Jaume Huguet of  Bardalona, circa 1455-1460, tempera and gold leaf on for wood from Santa Maria del Pi, Barcelona.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  37761-2-3-4-5.
  • Gothic Altarpiece depicting the Last Supper (Sant Sopar) by Jaume Huguet, circa 1463 - 1475, Tempera and gold leaf on wood, from the convent of Sant Augusti Vell, Barcelona.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  40412.
  • Gothic Catalan Altarpiece depicting the Archangel Gabriel by Bernat Martorell, circa 1442-1445, Tempera and gold leaf on wood.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC  1442.
  • Gothic Catalan altar piece depicting the Madonna of Mercy by Bonant Zaortiga, circa 1430-1440, tempera and gold leaf on wood, from the church of Mare de Dieu de Carrasca , Blancas, Terol, Spain<br />
Bonnat Zaortiga was one of the most prominent representatives of the international Gothic. The Mother of God of Mercy  protects humans with her cape, symbolising one of the most feared evils of the European Middle Ages, plague, often understood as a punishment for the sins of mankind. This was the central panel of the altarpiece of the church of the Mother of God. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: MNAC 3945.
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of Saint Anthony the Abbot by Master of Rubio. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1360-1375. Dimensions 173.5 x 176.3 x 11.5 cm.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 045854-CJT
  • Gothic fresco mural painting "THE CONQUEST OF MAJORCA" 1285-1290. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 071447-CJT. <br />
The mural paintings of the Conquest of Majorca come from the former ancestral home of the Caldes family in Carrer Montcada in Barcelona, a building later known as Palau Aguilar. Discovered and removed in 1961, these paintings are one of the most important examples of early or Linear Gothic Catalan painting. This magnificent example of painting on historical subject matter narrates the conquest of the island of Majorca by James I the Conqueror in 1229. Like a painted chronicle, the episodes follow the detailed narrative of Catalan medieval accounts such as King James I's 'Llibre dels Feits' and Bernat Desclot's 'Crònica'.
  • A satyr caressing a maiden a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii 1st cent AD , from the Casa di L Cecilio Giocondo, inv no 110590 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples Archaeological Museum
  • A satyr caressing a maiden a Roman erotic fresco painting from Pompeii 1st cent AD , from the Casa di L Cecilio Giocondo, inv no 110590 , Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples Archaeological Museum
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st. Susa was one of the residential cities of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes.  The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran. Susa was one of the residential cityes of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes. Inv Ab3312-21, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture usurped by an Elamite king. 12th cent. BC from Suse. Inv AO 30043, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran. Susa was one of the residential cityes of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes. Inv Ab3312-21, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Diorite statue of Guidea who ruled Lagash from around 2150 BC. The statue called the "gushing vase" dedicated to the goddess Geshtinanna. From the ancient Sumarian city of Lagash.
  • Enamelled terracotta relief panel of Saint George sleighing the Dragon. Made in Florence around 11520. Inv RF 3096, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Gothic ivory diptych with scenes from the life of Christ and the Virgin made in Paris around 1370-1380.  inv 4089, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval case known as “of Saint Louis”,  made in Limoges around 1236. Given by Philip the Fair to the Abbey of Notre Dame du Lis with relics of Saint Louis inside., Paris. inv 253, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled box with scenes of the Massacre of the Innocents, last quarter of the 12th century from Limoges, enamel on gold. Monflanquin, Lot-en-Gironne. AD. Inv OA 10406, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled box depicting angels, circa12th century from Limoges, enamel on gold. AD.  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted wood sculpture of Saint Roch, circa 1510-1515  from Carinthie, Austria. Inv RF  4514,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted oak relief of three soldiers and two men in a rocky landscape below the walls of Jerusalem, from Antwerp circa 1510-1515. This is a panel from the Passion.  Inv RF  297,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted oak relief of three soldiers and two men in a rocky landscape below the walls of Jerusalem, from Antwerp circa 1510-1515. This is a panel from the Passion.  Inv RF  297,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted plaster statue of Saint Mary Magdalene, circa 1515-1520, suspended from the vault of the church of St. Mary Magdalene Dominican convent of Augsburg. Inspired by an engraving of Albrecht Durer which depicted Mary Magdalene nude. Inv RF 1338,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted plaster statue of Saint Mary Magdalene, circa 1515-1520, suspended from the vault of the church of St. Mary Magdalene Dominican convent of Augsburg. Inspired by an engraving of Albrecht Durer which depicted Mary Magdalene nude. Inv RF 1338,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Enamelled plaque depicting Christ’s flagellation made in Limoges at the end of the 15th century, attributed to Master Pseudo-Monvaerni. inv 6309, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled crosier with a lion and serpent, circa 12th century from Limoges, enamel on gold.  AD. Inv OA 7287, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled crosier with a lion and serpent, circa 12th century from Limoges, enamel on gold.  AD. Inv OA 7287, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled panel depicting the Crucifixion, end of 12th cent from Limoges, enamel on gold. AD. Inv OA 7285, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled panel depicting the Crucifixion, end of 12th cent from Limoges, enamel on gold. AD. Inv OA 7285, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory plaque depicting the Crucifixion and the saints at the tomb, end of 11th cent from Salerne or Amalfi. AD. Inv OA 4085, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Bouquetin goats horn ivory crosier with traces of paint, circa 12th century from the south of Italy. Inv OA 11150, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Bouquetin goats horn ivory crosier with traces of paint, circa 12th century from the south of Italy. Inv OA 11150, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval elephant ivory relief panel depicting the Crucifixtion. From southern Germany or north of Italy, end of 10th or 11th cent. AD. Inv. OA 12231, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Gothic decorative painted beam panels with doves, hares and a carved syalise tree, Tempera on wood. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic altar panel depicting St Michael sleighing the dragon. End of the 13th century, tempera on a spruce wooden panel  from  The Church of Sant Miguel de Soriguerola, Cerdanya, Huesca, Spain. Inv MNAC 43901. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic altar panel depicting scenes of hell with the damned in a colder being heated by the devil. End of the 13th century, tempera on a spruce wooden panel  from  The Church of Sant Miguel de Soriguerola, Cerdanya, Huesca, Spain. Inv MNAC 43901. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic panel depicting scenes from the Life of St Nicholas. End of the 13th century, fresco transferred to canvas from a mural on the north wall of  The Church of San Fructuoso, Nicholas and John the Evangelist, Huesca, Spain. Inv MNAC 45796. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Painted Gothic panels from the Altarpiece of the Virgin of the Angels.<br />
From Left - San John the Baptist, Santa Mary Magdele, St. James the Less, St. Paul.Tempera and gold leaf on wood, circa 1385 by by Pere Serra  from the Cathedral of Tortosa (Tarragona). Inv MNAC 3950, 3948, 3949. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic statue of The Virgin Mary (Madonna) holding the baby Jesus. Polychrome and gold leaf on wood by the Circle of Gil de Siloe around 1500, probably from Castella. Inv MNAC 64028. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Painted Gothic panels from the Altarpiece of the Virgin of the Angels.<br />
From Left - San Peter, Santa Clara, Saint James the Greater, St. John the Evangelist. Tempera and gold leaf on wood, circa 1385 by by Pere Serra  from the Cathedral of Tortosa (Tarragona). Inv MNAC 3950, 3948, 3949. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Late 13th or 14th century Gothic Bas-relief depicting the miracle performed by St Michael at Mont St Michael. limestone with traces of polcrome from the Church of San Miguel de Canet lo Roig (Castello), by the Master of Sant Mateu. Inv MNAC 45846-45845. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Limoges Gothic goblet or cup from Cerdanya, circa 1195-1200. Copper engraved with an application of Champlevé enamelling. From a church in Cerdanya, Pyrenese, Spain. Inv MNAC 12106. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Limoges Gothic goblet or cup from Cerdanya, circa 1195-1200. Copper engraved with an application of Champlevé enamelling. From a church in Cerdanya, Pyrenese, Spain. Inv MNAC 12106. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Limoges Gothic goblet or cup from Cerdanya, circa 1195-1200. Copper engraved with an application of Champlevé enamelling. From a church in Cerdanya, Pyrenese, Spain. Inv MNAC 12106. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Limoges Gothic Christian thurible or incense burner, 13th century. Copper engraved with an application of Champlevé enamelling. Origin Unknown. Inv MNAC 4550. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Limoges Gothic Christian thurible or incense burner, 13th century. Copper engraved with an application of Champlevé enamelling. Origin Unknown. Inv MNAC 4550. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Limoges figure of Christ from a Gothic Crucifix, circa 1200-1220. Copper engraving embossing, laced with an application of Champlevé enamelling and glass beads. Origin Unknow. Inv MNAC 4100. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Limoges figure of Christ from a Gothic Crucifix, circa 1200-1220. Copper engraving embossing, laced with an application of Champlevé enamelling and glass beads. Origin Unknow. Inv MNAC 4100. National Museum of Catalan Art (MNAC), Barcelona, Spain
  • Gothic wood statue of the Virgin Mary and Child. Polychrome wood carving with varnished metal-plating. Date - First quarter of the 13th century. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain inv no: 3924
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Virgin Suckling the Child, Saint Clare and Saint Anthony the Abbott by the Workshop of Llorenc Saragossa. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Date Last quarter of 14th century. Dimesions 207 x 187.5 x 10 cm. From Xelva (Valencia). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 064027-CJT
  • Gothic painted bas-relief of the Nativity by Master of Albesa, Active in Lleida. Polychrome and gilded limestone bas-relief. Second half of 14th century. Dimesions 57 x 69 x 11 cm.Compartment of a sculptural altarpiece devoted to the Virgin. From the crypt of the collegiate church of Sant Pere d'Àger (Noguera). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 017342-000
  • Gothic wood statue of Virgin and Child by tan anontmous Catalan Artist. Carved alabaster with remains of polychrome and gold leaf. Date Second half of 14th century. Dimensions 117.5 x 38.6 x 28.4 cm.  Probably comes from Sanaüja (Segarra). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain inv no: 004359-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Virgin Suckling the Child by Llorenc Saragossa. Tempera, gold leaf and metal plate on wood. Last quarter of 14th century. Dimensions 196.7 x 148.4 x 9.5 cm.  It comes from Albarracín cathedral (Teruel).  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 005080-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Virgin of the Angels by Pere Serra. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1385. 195.8 x 131 x 11 cm. Comes from Tortosa cathedral (Baix Ebre). <br />
This splendid central panel and the two sections of the predella with saints (which must once have flanked a tabernacle) are all that remains of an altarpiece. It was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and was painted for one of the chapels in the ambulatory of Tortosa cathedral, probably towards the 1380s. The compartment with the Virgin and Child surrounded by angels playing music is a very graceful and refined version of an iconographic type that was extremely popular at the time. Pere Serra, author of the altarpiece, came from a family of painters who grew to head the Catalan painting of the second half of the fourteenth century. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 003950-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of Saint Vincent by  Master of Estopanya. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1350-1370. 199 x 255 x 10 cm. Comes from Estopanyà (Baixa Ribagorça, Huesca).. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 003940-CJT
  • Gothic painted Panel of the Announcement to the Shepherds and Annunciation by anonymous artist from Navarra. Tempera and varnished metal leaf on wood and applied carving. Circa 1335-1350. 90.8 x 171.2 x 5.8 cm. From the parish church of Arteta (Navarra).. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 004368-000
  • Gothic wood statue of the Head of Christ by  Jaume Cascalls. Carved alabaster with polychrome and gilt remains.  This head must have belonged to a Recumbent Christ which could have formed part of a sculptural group of the Holy Sepulchre. It probably came from the chapel of Corpus Christi of the convent of Sant Agustí Vell, Barcelona.<br />
Jaume Cascalls is one of the most important sculptors of the fourteenth century in Catalonia. This is borne out by his involvement over almost thirty years with the project of the royal pantheon in Poblet for King Peter the Ceremonious and with other large undertakings of the time. Today, on stylistic grounds, he is credited with this 'Head of Christ', which must have formed part of a sculptural group of the Holy Sepulchre, presumably from the church of the convent of Sant Agustí Vell in Barcelona. The break in the neck suggests it belonged to a full-length recumbent Christ, like the one kept at Sant Feliu in Girona and also attributed to Cascalls. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 034879-000
  • Gothic wood statue of Bishop Saint by the St Bertrand de Cominges Group of artists. Polychrome wood carving with varnished metal-plating.  National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 064024-000
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Enamelled terracotta panel depicting Saint Anne, the Virgin Mary and Child with Saint Anthony made in the 2nd half of the 16th century by Santi Bugloni of Florence. This is a typical Tuscan theme of the period. Saint Anne was particularly venerated during the expulsion of the tyrant Gaultier de Brienne, Duke of Athens. .  Inv Camp 38,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stained glass windows depicting scenes from the life of Saint Nicaise, made in the first quarter of the 13th century from a chapel in the Cathedral of Soissons, France. The stained glass depicts the martyrdom of Saint Nicaise.  Inv OA 6006,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted wood sculpture of Saint Roch, circa 1510-1515  from Carinthie, Austria. Inv RF  4514,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted wood sculpture of Saint Roch, circa 1510-1515  from Carinthie, Austria. Inv RF  4514,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted plaster statue of Saint Mary Magdalene, circa 1515-1520, suspended from the vault of the church of St. Mary Magdalene Dominican convent of Augsburg. Inspired by an engraving of Albrecht Durer which depicted Mary Magdalene nude. Inv RF 1338,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted plaster statue of Saint Mary Magdalene, circa 1515-1520, suspended from the vault of the church of St. Mary Magdalene Dominican convent of Augsburg. Inspired by an engraving of Albrecht Durer which depicted Mary Magdalene nude. Inv RF 1338,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Enamelled terracotta relief panel of the Virgin and Child with Cherubs by Andrea  della Robbia, Florence circa 1435-1525.  Inv  Campana 32,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Enamelled terracotta relief panel of the Virgin and Child with two cherubs a copy of the “Madonna de l’Impuuneta” by Luca della Robbia, Florence 1399-1482).  Inv Campana 32,  The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Enamelled terracotta relief panel of Saint George sleighing the Dragon. Made in Florence around 1520. Inv RF 3096, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval elephant ivory plaque with traces of paint made in Italy in the 13th or start of the 14th century.  The crucifixion is a rare example of a Gothic piece being inspired by 11th century Romanesque works.  inv 7268, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled box depicting the entombment of a Saint, beginning of the 13th century from Limoges, enamel on gold. AD. Inv OA 949, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled box depicting the martyrdom of Saint Thomas Becket, 12th century from Limoges, enamel on gold. AD. Inv OA 11333, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval enamelled tabernacle depicting Christ in majesty, circa 1200 AD from Limoges, enamel on gold. AD. Inv OA 8984, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory plaque depicting the Crucifixion and the saints at the tomb, end of 11th cent from Salerne or Amalfi. AD. Inv OA 4085, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval elephant ivory relief panel depicting the Crucifixtion. From southern Germany or north of Italy, end of 10th or 11th cent. AD. Inv. OA 12231, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory comb with a central relief panel depicting David defeating a Lion. Third quarter of the 9th cent. AD from Metz. Inv. OA 354, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval ivory comb with a central relief panel depicting David defeating a Lion. Third quarter of the 9th cent. AD from Metz. Inv. OA 354, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Medieval Christian relief Icon depicting scenes from the Nativity, A central ivory panel surrounded by beaten silver border. From Constantinople, 11th or 12th century. Inv. OA 11399, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic fresco depicting Pan and Hermaphrodite, Pompeii (VI, 9, 6,) Casa die Dioscuri, inv 27700, 1-50 AD, Naples Archaological Museum, Italy
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of Saint Barbara by Goncal Peris Sarria. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Date Circa 1410-1425. Dimesions 278 x 207.7 x 17 cm. At the beginning of the 20th century, the altarpiece was kept in the parish church of Puertomingalvo (Teruel), but it could originally have come from the chapel of Santa Bárbara near this town. This altarpiece is attributed to the painter Gonçal Peris Sarrià, one of the chief representatives of Valencian International Gothic. His style is marked by expressive and picturesque elements, the flowing line and the charm of the colour. The main compartment of the altarpiece represents the titular saint with her distinctive attributes –the tower, in allusion to her imprisonment, and the palm, as she is considered a martyr-- and above her the Calvary. On either side are depicted various episodes from the life of Saint Barbara, who was called on to keep away lightning and storms. . National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 035672-CJT
  • Gothic painted bas-relief of the Nativity by Master of Albesa, Active in Lleida. Polychrome and gilded limestone bas-relief. Second half of 14th century. Dimesions 57 x 69 x 11 cm.Compartment of a sculptural altarpiece devoted to the Virgin. From the crypt of the collegiate church of Sant Pere d'Àger (Noguera). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 017342-000
  • Gothic wood statue of Virgin and Child by tan anontmous Catalan Artist. Carved alabaster with remains of polychrome and gold leaf. Date Second half of 14th century. Dimensions 117.5 x 38.6 x 28.4 cm.  Probably comes from Sanaüja (Segarra). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain inv no: 004359-000
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of Saint Stephen by  Jaume Serra. Tempera, gold leaf and metal plate on wood. Circa 1385. Dimesions 185.7 x 186.5 x 11 cm. From the monastery of Santa Maria de Gualter (Noguera).. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 003947-CJT
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of Saint Stephen by  Jaume Serra. Tempera, gold leaf and metal plate on wood. Circa 1385. Dimesions 185.7 x 186.5 x 11 cm. From the monastery of Santa Maria de Gualter (Noguera).. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 003947-CJT
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of Saint Anthony the Abbot by Master of Rubio. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1360-1375. Dimensions 173.5 x 176.3 x 11.5 cm.  National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 045854-CJT
  • Gothic painted Panel Altarpiece of the Saints John by  Master of Santa Coloma de Queralt. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Circa 1356. 220.5 x 209.8 x 11.5 cm. From the church of Sant Miquel de Tamarit de Llitera (Huesca). National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 004351-CJT
  • Gothic painted Panel Altar frontal of Jesus' childhood by anonymous artist from Navarra. Tempera and gold leaf on wood. Second quarter of 14th century. 90.8 x 171.2 x 5.8 cm. From the parish church of Arteta (Navarra).. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 004368-000
  • Gothic painted Panel of the life of Saint Ursula. Tempera and varnished metal plate on wood. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 004377-000
  • Gothic wood statue of Saint Lucy by the St Bertrand de Cominges Group of artists. Polychrome wood carving with varnished metal-plating.  National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 064013-000
  • Gothic wood statue of Saint Lucy by the St Bertrand de Cominges Group of artists. Polychrome wood carving with varnished metal-plating.  National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 064013-000
  • Virgin Mary  Gothic sculpture from a Calvery scene. Polychrome wood carving with remains of varnished metal plate. National Museum of Catalan Art, Barcelona, Spain, inv no: 004390-CJT.
  • 1 cent AD Roman Erotic  fresco from a house in Pompeii. Naples Archaological Museum
  • Roman fresco wall painting of Ariadne fast asleep on a bed of seaweed does not realise that Theseus is about to abandon her and sailaway on a ship to Athens, Pompeii House of colored Capitals, VII,31-51, inv 9052 , Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a cat killing a bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a chicken from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of an exotic bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a chickens from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of cryptoporticus A  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The paintings in the long corridor, which got light only from small high-placed windows, are on a white background. The illusionistic decoration shows a row of columns on a high socle decorated with "grottesche". In the background, pictures alternating theatrical scenes, scenes of worship, and landscapes seem to hang on a wall divided by pilasters. Some of the scenes are probably later restorations of the originals. <br />
In the upper part a loggia holding sphinxes and statues of divinities rests on caryatids (architectural supports in the form of female figures). <br />
Because there was limited time for excavation, only the more important decorative elements were removed from the walls. A drawing on the modern base on which the fragments are inserted gives an idea of the effect of the whole, which is known to us from a watercolor done at the time.
  • Roman fresco wall decoration frangmet from a Villa alongside the Tiber, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decoration frangmet from a Villa alongside the Tiber, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decoration frangmet from a Villa alongside the Tiber, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman fresco wall decoration frangmet from a Villa alongside the Tiber, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations from Villas of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Bedroom B, the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Bedroom B, the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom B  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom B  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom B  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The bedroom (cubiculum). an intimate space with a bed (kline), divided into antechamber and bed alcove, has a rich decoration whose dominant color is the expensive cinnabar red. Architectural elements rendered in perspective complete with shadows are the setting for representations of pictures hung on the walls, which give the impression of an art gallery. Painted aedicula frame on the left wall the toilette of Aphrodite, on the right Dionysos with the nymphs of Mt. Nysa, to whom Zeus had entrusted the care of his baby son. Other small pictures, shown with illusionistic wooden protective shutters, present scenes of interiors and pairs of lovers. Fantastic ornamental figures and Egyptian gods, like Isis and Juppiter Ammon, cover the walls. The barrel vault in pure white stucco is decorated with reliefs showing scenes of initiation into the mysteries and idylic landscapes with sacred elements.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Bedroom D  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
This bedroom has a decoration very similar to that of cubiculum B in its arrangement and the use of cinnabar red. At the rear of the alcove three women perform a sacrificial ceremony in a rustic shrine. The walls of the antechamber have scenes of lovers, and most of the other pictures have to do with female life. Here carefully rendered details (attendants, handmaidens, furniture, glass and silver vessels) provide invaluable information on domestic life. There are also Egyptianizing elements, lotus flowers, sphinxes, and exotic landscapes. On the second column of the right wall is the inscription, in Greek, Seleukos made this, presumably the name of a Greek who was one of the artisans. The vaulted ceiling, in pure white stucco, has reliefs of initiation rites into the mysteries, idyllic landscapes with sacred elements, and combats between fantastic animals. The decorative scheme of the two bedrooms owes its inspiration to the deities Aphrodite and Dionysos. A fragment of geometric mosaic in black and white can be attributed to bedroom D on the basis of a contemporary watercolor.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Balnea Baths, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Balnea Baths, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Balnea Baths, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E9, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Vestibule of a Rome Villa, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
A large fresco covered the curving wall of the vestibule E 5 was positioned at the entrance of the house onto the street. Vitruvius claims that the vestibulum was a room which was not needed by common people, but which was essential in a house worthy of respect, because it served to welcome guests and the people who came to be received by the owners of the house. The frescoed decoration of this wall, which was entirely detached, shows a division into panels, architectural perspectives and pavilions among which are figures and decorative elements, above a band of skirting. Numerous panels have been detached from the corridor E 3 E 11 which connected all the areas of the house, but it has not been possible to reconstruct the sequence of the walls. Inside the frames, against a white background, different decorative elements are arranged, along with hanging female and male figures, hippogriffs and other fantastical animals, vases, garlands and vegetation.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Vestibule of a Rome Villa, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
A large fresco covered the curving wall of the vestibule E 5 was positioned at the entrance of the house onto the street. Vitruvius claims that the vestibulum was a room which was not needed by common people, but which was essential in a house worthy of respect, because it served to welcome guests and the people who came to be received by the owners of the house. The frescoed decoration of this wall, which was entirely detached, shows a division into panels, architectural perspectives and pavilions among which are figures and decorative elements, above a band of skirting. Numerous panels have been detached from the corridor E 3 E 11 which connected all the areas of the house, but it has not been possible to reconstruct the sequence of the walls. Inside the frames, against a white background, different decorative elements are arranged, along with hanging female and male figures, hippogriffs and other fantastical animals, vases, garlands and vegetation.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Geometric  Swastica mosaic decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Geometric  Swastica mosaic decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Fresco of Venus sitting restored as Roma  known as the “Dea Barberini” (“Barberini goddess”), dating from the first quarter of the fourth century. A.D, excavated near to Baptistery of St. John Lateran , Rome Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a symposium exotic bird from   The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of a bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of fruit bird from  The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco of fruit bird from The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Fresco  the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman Frescoes of the The Large Columbarium in Villa Doria Panphilj, Rome. A columbarium is usually a type of tomb with walls lined by niches that hold urns containing the ashes of the dead.  Large columbaria were built in Rome between the end of the Republican Era and the Flavio Principality (second half of the first century AD).  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Viridarium L  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Rooms B and D, clearly bedrooms (cubicula), were symmetrically arranged and projected farther forward than the large room C (the triclinium). They opened onto a rectangular unroofed space that must have been a garden (viridarium). This was a genuine hortus conclusus (enclosed garden). The walls that surrounded the real garden were decorated with a painted garden, like an extension of the real one. The south wall was decorated with the three panels shown here: within dense vegetation there are huts made of reeds, jetting fountains, and a marble seat. The most complete example of this kind of room is the one from the Villa of Livia (on display on this floor of the museum), the prototype for the fashion that spread throughout the Roman world of painting gardens on interior walls and around real garden spaces.

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