• Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic portrait of a Cockerall Fight  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Pictures of Roman Mosaics of a Lion Dionysus and Manadi from the Casa del Centauro (VI 9, 3) Pompeii, inv 10019, Naples Archaeological Museum - Stock Photos
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, Grey Art background
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman panel with candelabra and a cupid hunter in glass paste from  Pompeii VI, Inv 38 No 10012, Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaics from Pompeii showing a Panther with Dionysus symbol (Pantera con simboli dionisiaci) from the Santangelo collection, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a Lion from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic portrait of a women from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 124666
  • Roman mosaic of drinking birds from Santa Maria Capua Vetere, ancient Capua, inv no 9992, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, Grey  background
  • Roman mosaic of  the Academy of Plato from the Villa of T. Siminius Stephanus, inv no 124545, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Round Roman mosaic of a Lion and Cupids between Dionysus and Manadi, Pompeii, House of the Centaur (VI 9.3,) inv No 10019,  Naples Archaeological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of birds drinking from Pompeii,  Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, Black background
  • Roman mosaic of a scene from Meanders comedy Theophoroumene(the passed girl) with musical hawkers by Dioscurides of Samos. Pompeii from the so-called Villa of Cicero, Inv 9985, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a mythical procession, Pompeii, Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum,  Art background
  • Roman mosaic of a skull called "Mimento Mori" from Pompeii, inv 100982, Naples National Archeological Museum, White background
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of actors from the Casa del Poet Tragic (VI 8, 3,) Pompeii, inv 9986. Naples Archaeological Musum, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic of  Lycurgus and Ambrosia the presence of Dionysus from Herculaneum, Naples Archaeological Museum, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of  “ Silenus Drunk “ - A 2nd century AD Roman sculpture made from marble from Paros. Silenus was described as the oldest, wisest and most drunken of the followers of Dionysus, the god of wine. When intoxicated, Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy. From the Ancient Royal Collection of France inv MR 343 (or MA 291) previously held at Versailles. Louvre Museum Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor Domitian  81-96 AD, inv 6061, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 2nd century AD Roman statue of Apollo known as the Belvederre Apollo. The Apollo statue originally had a bow in its left hand and Apollo is depiceted having just fired an arrow.  Probably a Roman copy of a Hellenistic statue from around 330-320 BC by Leochares. Inv 1015, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  black background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • Roman statue of goddes Athena from the tablinum of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, white background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6283 Farnese Collection, Naples  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Fish eating a serpant from the 3rd century Roman mosaic villa floor from Lod, near Tel Aviv, Israel. The Roman floor mosaic of Lod is the largest and best preserved mosaic floor from the levant region along the eastern Mediterranean coast. It is unclear whether the owners were Jewish, Christian or pagan but either way they would have been wealthy to own such a magnificent floor. The Shelby White and Leon Levy Lod Mosaic Centre, Lod, Israel.
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with diminutional cube designs, from a Roman villa near Casale de S.Basilio near Via Nomentana, Rome. 1st century BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Aeschines, 23BC yo 14 AD Augustin copy from an original 340-330 BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6139, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Bronze sculpture of a Dancing Women from the square peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Bronze sculpture of a Dancing Women from the square peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253,  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus) of the Venus Felix Type , copied from a  2nd to 1st century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6300, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a male figure restored as Augustus 2nd century AD, inv no 6053, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor  Vespasian 80 AD, inv 6068, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of a Statue of  Atalanta a 2nd century Roman sculpture restored in the 17th century. Atalanta  is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.. The Mazarin Collection  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095,  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor  Claudius 41-54 AD, inv 6068, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Harmodius  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6009, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with roses and flowers, from the Pietra Papa area near the Flavian Gate, Rome. 125-150 BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus) of the Venus Felix Type , copied from a  2nd to 1st century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6300 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture known as the ‘Flora Maggiore’ , a 2nd century AD, inv no 5978 Farnese Collection, Naples   Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405  Farnese Collection, Naples  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Athena from the tabling of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Athena from the tabling of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor  Claudius 41-54 AD, inv 6068, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture known as ‘The Small Women’ the so called Flora, copied from a 4th century BC  Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6404, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor Domitian  81-96 AD, inv 6061, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of a Nymph with a shell ( Nymphe a la coquille ) a 1st century marble statue from Italy which was part of the Borghese collection . Louvre Museum, Paris Cat No MR 309. <br />
The Nymph with a shell statue was much admired in the 17th century and influenced such art its as Velasquez. The statue symbolises a carefree childhood and the fact that terracotta versions have been found in tombs suggests that the statue was associated with the injustice of death or of a rebirth.
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of an Amazon on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6407, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor Domitian  81-96 AD, inv 6061, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • The Roman Venus Statue, the Goddess of Love, follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of Ttththird century BC Hellenistic Greek statues now lost. Dated circa 1st quarter of second century AD, the Venus statue was excavated from the Odeon of Carthage. The National Bardo Museum, Tunis. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth century AD Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian  funerary mosaic of of a little girl The fragmentary inscription is at the top: (name of the deceased) who lived 4 years 11 months, 3 days 7 hours. The deceased is featured in a praying attitude, wearing an embroidered dalmatic. A monogrammed cross and a lit candle accompany the funerary idealised portrait. <br />
Christian necropolis of the Mezghani mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis  (present day Sfax, Tunisia) Fifth c. A.D. <br />
<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine   funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian terracotta candle holder for 12 candles from a church in Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  white background
  • Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Gilded bronze 1st century AD Roman statue of Hercules found buried near Pompey's Theatre having possibly been struck by lightening and given a customary Roman burial. A Roman copy of a Hellenistic Athenian staue from around 390-370 BC, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  white background
  • 2nd century AD Roman statue of Apollo known as the Belvederre Apollo. The Apollo statue originally had a bow in its left hand and Apollo is depiceted having just fired an arrow.  Probably a Roman copy of a Hellenistic statue from around 330-320 BC by Leochares. Inv 1015, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  white background
  • Roman staue of Lucius Verus with the idealised body of Diomedes, AD 160-170, inv 6095, Naples National Archaeological Museum, black background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • Roman colossal seated staue of Augustus Caesar, white marble, late first century B.C, inv 6040, Naples National Archaeological Museum, grey background
  • Roman Bronze sculpture bust known as 'Sylla" from the tablinium of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, white background
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • Opus Sectile Roman of a Dionysian scene, Pompeii, inv 9979 , Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Erotic Roman Mosaic of Pigmies in boats fornicating on the River Nile from Rome, inv 122861,  Secret Museum or Secret Cabinet, Naples National Archaeological Museum , art background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6283 - Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • African animals and fish from the 3rd century Roman mosaic villa floor from Lod, near Tel Aviv, Israel. The Roman floor mosaic of Lod is the largest and best preserved mosaic floor from the levant region along the eastern Mediterranean coast. It is unclear whether the owners were Jewish, Christian or pagan but either way they would have been wealthy to own such a magnificent floor. The Shelby White and Leon Levy Lod Mosaic Centre, Lod, Israel.
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a Young boy playing with snakes, possibly an early Christian mosaic. Syria or Lebanon, 5th century AD. Cubes of marble and limestone. Dressed in a long tunic, the child playing with two snakes could be illustrating a passage from the Book of Isai (11.6 to 8). This fragmented mosaic panel once continued in upper part, as indicated by the animal hoofs, and to the right of the mosaic are remains of a Greek inscription. inv 5094. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405 Farnese Collection, Naples  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of an Amazon on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6407 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of an Amazon on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6407 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of an Amazon on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6407 Farnese Collection, Naples Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Antinous as Bacchus, a 2nd century AD, inv no 6314 Farnese Collection, Naples Archaeological Muueum
  • Roman marble sculpture of a male figure restored as Augustus 2nd century AD, inv no 6053, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Antisthenes, 2nd century AD copy from an original 340-330 BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6159, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Aeschines, 23BC yo 14 AD Augustin copy from an original 340-330 BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6139, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Pindar, 1 130-140 AD from an original mid 5th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6144, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Athena, inv 6321, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Bronze sculpture of a Dancing Women from the square peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Bronze sculpture of a Dancing Women from the square peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Bronze sculpture of a Dancing Women from the square peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules hand copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture known as the Farnese Bull from the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aristogeiton  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6307, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Eros with a dolphin, inv no 6357, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253,  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6283, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6283, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a male figure restored as Augustus 2nd century AD, inv no 6053, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of a Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Painted colour verion of  “ Silenus Drunk “ - A 2nd century AD Roman sculpture made from marble from Paros. Silenus was described as the oldest, wisest and most drunken of the followers of Dionysus, the god of wine. When intoxicated, Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy. From the Ancient Royal Collection of France inv MR 343 (or MA 291) previously held at Versailles. Louvre Museum Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor  Claudius 41-54 AD, inv 6068, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Harmodius  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6009, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  The inscription in the cartouche reads " Leontia in peace and harmony with God, entered into eternal life on the Sixth Ides of October". Two birds and cut Roses occupy the rest of the mosaic. <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Early seventh Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • 2nd century AD Roman statue of Apollo known as the Belvederre Apollo. The Apollo statue originally had a bow in its left hand and Apollo is depiceted having just fired an arrow.  Probably a Roman copy of a Hellenistic statue from around 330-320 BC by Leochares. Inv 1015, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  black background
  • 2nd century AD Roman statue of Apollo known as the Belvederre Apollo. The Apollo statue originally had a bow in its left hand and Apollo is depiceted having just fired an arrow.  Probably a Roman copy of a Hellenistic statue from around 330-320 BC by Leochares. Inv 1015, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • 2nd - 1st century BC Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Marine Venus' Type with a dolphin, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6296, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • Full length frontal view of Roman bronze staue of Augustus Ceasar as Pontifex Maximus, late first century B.C, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • Roman bronze staue of Augustus Ceasar as Pontifex Maximus, late first century B.C, Naples National Archaeological Museum, grey art background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey art background
  • Roman colossal seated staue of Augustus Caesar, white marble, late first century B.C, inv 6040, Naples National Archaeological Museum
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Mosaic with the head of Medusa, from Casa delle Vestali, Pompeii , Naples National Archaeological Museum , black background
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic  from the Villa of Castel di Guido, Rome. 1st century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with swastikas. From the Roman villa near Botte, Rome. 1st century BC . National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic with cat and ducks. From the Roman villa on Via Ardeatina, next to Cecchignola, Rome. This Roman mosaic floor panel represents a cat trying to catch a bird in flight and two ducks, one of which is holding a lotus flower in its beak. The style is similar to Hellenistic paintings. The mosaic was found in the triclinium of a Roman villa dating from the first quarter of the 1st century AD and features a central panel using a style known as “opus Vermiculatum” or small tiles to give a greater detail to the mosaic. inv 124137 National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Floor mosaic with satyr heads and pan.  From a Roman villa which probably belonged to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Genazzano. Circo 138-192 AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a Young boy playing with snakes, possibly an early Christian mosaic. Syria or Lebanon, 5th century AD. Cubes of marble and limestone. Dressed in a long tunic, the child playing with two snakes could be illustrating a passage from the Book of Isai (11.6 to 8). This fragmented mosaic panel once continued in upper part, as indicated by the animal hoofs, and to the right of the mosaic are remains of a Greek inscription. inv 5094. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic  depicting the struggle between Dionysus and the Indians. From the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. 4th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Archemedes III from the rectangular peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of an Tiberius, 30 AD , inv 6052 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Faun, a 2nd century AD copy from an original of a late 2nd - 1st century BC late Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6332  Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Athena from the tabling of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor  Claudius 41-54 AD, inv 6068, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman bronze sculpture of Dinoysus - Plato, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Homer from the rectangular peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Homer from the rectangular peristyle of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 1st century AD Roman marble sculpture of a seated male, copied from a  Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6323, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules hand copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules hand copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture known as the Farnese Bull from the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century Roman sculpture of Apollo seated with lyre, sculpted in porphyry, inv no 6281,  The Farnese collection, Naples Archiological Musuem, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a male figure restored as Augustus 2nd century AD, inv no 6053, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Nile Scene Roman Mosaic ( Scena Nileotica )  from Pompei Archaeological Site. Naples Archaeological Museum inv 9990
  • Painted colour verion of a Nymph with a shell ( Nymphe a la coquille ) a 1st century marble statue from Italy which was part of the Borghese collection . Louvre Museum, Paris Cat No MR 309. <br />
The Nymph with a shell statue was much admired in the 17th century and influenced such art its as Velasquez. The statue symbolises a carefree childhood and the fact that terracotta versions have been found in tombs suggests that the statue was associated with the injustice of death or of a rebirth.
  • Painted colour verion of Aphrodite- type known as the Venus of Arles. A Roman statue in marble of the 1st - 2nd century AD in marble from Rome. The statue is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) and is  probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae a lost bronze sculpture by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . From the Royal collection Inv MR 366 ( or Ma 437), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Painted colour verion of  Centaur with Eros on its back, a 1st - 2nd AD Roman sculpture in marble. Tradition has it that a centaur be a monstrous half-man half-horse mythical creature. In this Roman statue the old centaur is being ridden by Eros (Cupid), the Greek god of Love represented in the form of a young wing child. The sculpture is a copy of a Greek original  attributed to school sculpture of Aphrodisias (Turkey) can be dating in the 2nd century BC. The Borghese Collection inv MR 122 ( or Ma 562 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Painted colour verion of  “ Silenus Drunk “ - A 2nd century AD Roman sculpture made from marble from Paros. Silenus was described as the oldest, wisest and most drunken of the followers of Dionysus, the god of wine. When intoxicated, Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy. From the Ancient Royal Collection of France inv MR 343 (or MA 291) previously held at Versailles. Louvre Museum Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095,  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of an Amazon on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6407, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor Domitian  81-96 AD, inv 6061, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of end of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Harmodius  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6009, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6283, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • The Roman Venus Statue, the Goddess of Love, follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of the third century BC Hellenistic Greek statues now lost. Dated circa 1st quarter of second century AD, the Venus statue was excavated from the Odeon of Carthage. The National Bardo Museum, Tunis.
  • The Roman Venus Statue, the Goddess of Love, follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of Ttththird century BC Hellenistic Greek statues now lost. Dated circa 1st quarter of second century AD, the Venus statue was excavated from the Odeon of Carthage. The National Bardo Museum, Tunis. Against a grey art background.
  • Second century Roman Christian funerary stele for 3 dead people from Africa Proconsularis. The stele depicts the deceased:  Fausata who died age 75, a man who died age 70 and a child who died age 2 years 6 months. From the first half of the second century AD from the region of Bou Arada in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Second century Roman Christian funerary stele for 3 dead people from Africa Proconsularis. The stele depicts the deceased:  Fausata who died age 75, a man who died age 70 and a child who died age 2 years 6 months. From the first half of the second century AD from the region of Bou Arada in present day Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Fifth Century Christian Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Mezghani Christian necropolis mounds in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sfax) dedicated to Priscianus. Above the memorial text is the Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). The layout of the mosaic is typical of those excavated in the Sfax region from this period.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic from Leptis Minus-Lemto in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , (Tunisian Sehel Region) dedicated to Cresconius, depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum). <br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • 5th century Eastern Roman Byzantine  funerary mosaic from Tarbaka in the Roman province of Africa Proconsularis , present day Tunisia, with a crown at the top probably a Christogram  (Latin Monogramma Christi ) is a monogram used as an abbreviation for the name of Jesus Christ, with a figure below and a latin text for the deceased " Covuldeus in peace". Either side of the figure are a lit candle which symbolises eternal faith. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis Tunisia.<br />
<br />
Christian burial grounds The ingenuity and expertise of mosaic schools, particularly those operating in Proconsular Africa and By-zacena, led to the dissemination of a mosaic trend which was very well tailored to the needs of a Christian clientele, who was authorised by the Church to use the basilica area and its ancillaries for burial, particularly in the sacred spaces such as the baptistery and the choir.
  • Fifth century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian funerary mosaic dedicated to Leontia.  The Constantinian monogram depicting the Christian Chi-Rho symbol used by the Roman emperor Constantine I as part of his military standard (vexillum).  <br />
<br />
Excavated from Demna Parish Church ruins between the 4th and 5th columns of the right aisle. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.
  • Early seventh Century Christian Roman Byzantine commemoration mosaic from the baptistery of a rural church in Wadi Arremal, present day Zaghouan Region of Tunisia. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The mosaic shows workers construction the early christian church the mosaic commemorates. The mosaic can be regarded as being late Roman of early Byzantine Roman as the area came under the rule of Constantinople during this period
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additio-nal details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Bronze head of possibly Trebonianus Gallus, 251-253 A.D., inv 15032, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy, black background

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