• The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestum built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastrum built in about 500 BC.  Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestum built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastrum built in about 500 BC.  Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestum built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestum built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestum built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastum built in about 500 BC.  Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastrum built in about 500 BC.  Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastrum built in about 500 BC.  Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastrum built in about 500 BC.  Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestrum built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Base of a Roman Temple ( 200 BC) in  Paestum dedicated to the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, in the Roman Forum. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Base of a Roman Temple ( 200 BC) in  Paestrum dedicated to the Capitoline Triad, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva, in the Roman Forum. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestum built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestum  built in about 460–450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Close up of the ancient Doric Greek capitals & columns of the  Temple of Hera of Paestrum built in about 460-450 BC. Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastrum built in about 500 BC.  Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • The ancient Doric Greek Temple of Hera of Paestrum  built in about 460-450 BC. Paestum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Corinthian Capitals of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Corinthian Capitals of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Corinthian Capitals of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Facade of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Exterior of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Facade of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Exterior of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Corinthian Capitals of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Facade of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • Corinthian Capitals of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • The ancient Doric Greek  temple of Athena of Pastrum built in about 500 BC.  Paestrum archaeological site, Italy.
  • Exterior of the Maison Carrée, a ancient Roman temple built around 4-7 AD and dedicated to Julius Caesar, the best preserved example of a Roman temple,  Nimes, France
  • The Temple of Emperor Hadrian on Curetes Street ( 117 - 138 A.D ).  Ephesus Archaeological Site, Anatolia, Turkey.
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Pantheon. the 2nd century Roman temple to all Roman Gods built by the Emperor Trajan. Now the Roman Catholic  church of St. Mary and the Martyrs. Rome
  • Remains of a Roman temple in the Plazza Navona region of  Rome
  • Remains of a Roman temple in the Plazza Navona region of  Rome
  • Remains of a Roman temple in the Plazza Navona region of  Rome
  • Remains of a Roman temple in the Plazza Navona region of  Rome
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • The Corintian columns of Capitoline Temple dedicated to the three chief divinities of the Roman state, Jupiter, Juno and Minerva.  Volubilis Archaeological Site, near Meknes, Morocco
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Gordian III made between 238 and 244 AD and excavated from Ostia. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243AD). In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD excavated from the S. Barbiana region near the Station Terminus, Rome. Hadrian ( Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. An enthusiastic  builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. The great love of his life was Antinous who died tragically and suspiciously when he drowned in the Nile.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Athena (Roman Minerva) Sitting - from the Augustan period circa 63-43 BC the statue is a copy of a  5th century BC Greek  original, found in a palace on the Via Marmorato off the piazza dell’Emporio, Rome. The statue represents the goddess Minerva, dressed in chiton and himation which covers her head. The face and neck, now lost, have been substituted by a plaster cast of the Athena Carpegna. The aegis with the gorge emblem on her breast have enabled the goddess to be identified as Athena, the Roman Minerva, genially depicted in the guise of a helmeted female warrior. Its remarkable size suggests that this was a cult image, although a hypothesis remains linking it to the temple of Minerva on the Aventine. The sculpture bears the hallmark of a second of the 5th century BC Hellenistic Greek statue  made by Phidias. but uses different materials from the original which would have been in gold and ivory .National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD excavated from the S. Barbiana region near the Station Terminus, Rome. Hadrian ( Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. An enthusiastic  builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. The great love of his life was Antinous who died tragically and suspiciously when he drowned in the Nile.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD excavated from the S. Barbiana region near the Station Terminus, Rome. Hadrian ( Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. An enthusiastic  builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. The great love of his life was Antinous who died tragically and suspiciously when he drowned in the Nile.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD excavated from the S. Barbiana region near the Station Terminus, Rome. Hadrian ( Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. An enthusiastic  builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. The great love of his life was Antinous who died tragically and suspiciously when he drowned in the Nile.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD excavated from the S. Barbiana region near the Station Terminus, Rome. Hadrian ( Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. An enthusiastic  builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. The great love of his life was Antinous who died tragically and suspiciously when he drowned in the Nile.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • 2nd Cent. AD Roman relief sculpture depicting the struggle of Athena ( the goddess of wisdom, skill & warfare) fighting the Gigantes ( Giants) . From Aphrodisias (Geyne, Ayden) Turkey. Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Turkey, Inv. 1613aT , Cat. Mendel 512.
  • 2nd Cent. AD Roman relief sculpture depicting the struggle of Athena ( the goddess of wisdom, skill & warfare) fighting the Gigantes ( Giants) . From Aphrodisias (Geyne, Ayden) Turkey. Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Turkey, Inv. 1613aT , Cat. Mendel 512.
  • 2nd Cent. AD Roman relief sculpture depicting Gigantomachy, the battle between the gods & the giants. From Aphrodisias (Geyne, Ayden), Turkey. Istanbul Archaeological Museum, Turkey, Inv. 1613T , Cat. Mendel 511.
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • The Temple of Aphrodite,  Aphrodisias Archaeological site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Detail from the  Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Corinthian capital from the Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Detail from the  Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Corinthian capital from the Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Roman Temple of Apollo  Pompeii archaeological site, Italy
  • Roman Temple of Apollo  Pompeii archaeological site, Italy
  • Pillars of the Greco - Roman Temple of Trajan, started by Trajan but after his death Emperor Hadrian (117-138) . A Corinthian order temple on a terrace with dimensions of 68 × 58 m (223.10 ft × 190.29 ft). Pergamon (Bergama) Archaeological Site, Turkey
  • Ionic capital of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.  A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.  A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Ionic pillar base of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.
  • Ionic capital of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Excavations of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Ionic capital of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • The Temple of Aphrodite at the centre of Aphrodisias. All that remains of the ancient temple consists of fourteen of the over forty Ionic columns that once surrounded it and the foundations of the cellar section. building started in the 1st century BC completed during the reign of Augustus. <br />
<br />
Aphrodisias Archaeological Site, Aydin Province, Turkey.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.  A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Excavations of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.  A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.  A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Ionic capital of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Excavations of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Ionic capital of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.
  • Excavations of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey. A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Ionic pillar base of the Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.
  • Temple of Artimis Sardis, originally the fourth largest Ionic temple when it was originally built in 300 B.C. In 150 AD under Roman rule when the worship  of the Emperor required all Roman cities to have a Temple dedicated to the Imperial family. The temple of Artimis was split into two sections with one half for Artemis and the Empress Faustina and the other for Zeus and Emperor Antoninus Pius and the present construction shows elements of Greek and Roman styles. Sardis archaeological site, Hermus valley, Turkey.  A Harvard Art Museum excavation project.
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy

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