• Painted colour verion of a Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Painted colour verion of a Child and Goose - a 1st or 2nd century Roman sculpture from Villa des Quintilii on the Appia Way south of Rome, Italy. Three other similar versions of this Roman sculpture can be found in the Vatican, music and Geneva. The sculpture is attributed to Boethos who was a 2nd century sculptor.  The Braschi Collection, Inv No. MR168 (Usual No Ma 40), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of a Nymph with a shell ( Nymphe a la coquille ) a 1st century marble statue from Italy which was part of the Borghese collection . Louvre Museum, Paris Cat No MR 309. <br />
The Nymph with a shell statue was much admired in the 17th century and influenced such art its as Velasquez. The statue symbolises a carefree childhood and the fact that terracotta versions have been found in tombs suggests that the statue was associated with the injustice of death or of a rebirth.
  • Painted colour verion of a Nymph with a shell ( Nymphe a la coquille ) a 1st century marble statue from Italy which was part of the Borghese collection . Louvre Museum, Paris Cat No MR 309. <br />
The Nymph with a shell statue was much admired in the 17th century and influenced such art its as Velasquez. The statue symbolises a carefree childhood and the fact that terracotta versions have been found in tombs suggests that the statue was associated with the injustice of death or of a rebirth.
  • Painted colour verion of a Statue of  Atalanta a 2nd century Roman sculpture restored in the 17th century. Atalanta  is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.. The Mazarin Collection  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of a Statue of  Atalanta a 2nd century Roman sculpture restored in the 17th century. Atalanta  is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.. The Mazarin Collection  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of a Statue of  Atalanta a 2nd century Roman sculpture restored in the 17th century. Atalanta  is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.. The Mazarin Collection  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Aphrodite- type known as the Venus of Arles. A Roman statue in marble of the 1st - 2nd century AD in marble from Rome. The statue is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) and is  probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae a lost bronze sculpture by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . From the Royal collection Inv MR 366 ( or Ma 437), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Painted colour verion of Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Painted colour verion of  “ Silenus Drunk “ - A 2nd century AD Roman sculpture made from marble from Paros. Silenus was described as the oldest, wisest and most drunken of the followers of Dionysus, the god of wine. When intoxicated, Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy. From the Ancient Royal Collection of France inv MR 343 (or MA 291) previously held at Versailles. Louvre Museum Paris.
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095,  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095,  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture of an Amazon on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6407, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor Domitian  81-96 AD, inv 6061, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor Domitian  81-96 AD, inv 6061, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor  Claudius 41-54 AD, inv 6068, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of end of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of end of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Harmodius  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6009, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Harmodius  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6009, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Harmodius  from the Tyrannicide group,  a Roman copy of an early classical period Geek original, inv 6009, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculptured of Dionysus and Eros, inv 6307, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman sculpture of Pothos, a copy of a 4th century BC Greek original attributed to Skopas of Paros, inv no 6253, The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6283, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture known as the Farnese Bull from the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture known as the Farnese Bull from the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture known as the Farnese Bull from the Baths of Caracalla, Rome, Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • The Roman Venus Statue, the Goddess of Love, follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of the third century BC Hellenistic Greek statues now lost. Dated circa 1st quarter of second century AD, the Venus statue was excavated from the Odeon of Carthage. The National Bardo Museum, Tunis.
  • The Roman Venus Statue, the Goddess of Love, follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of Ttththird century BC Hellenistic Greek statues now lost. Dated circa 1st quarter of second century AD, the Venus statue was excavated from the Odeon of Carthage. The National Bardo Museum, Tunis.   Against a grey background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Septime Severe, excavated  from Choud El Battan sculpted circa 193-211AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.73.  Against a white background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Septime Severe, excavated  from Choud El Battan sculpted circa 193-211AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.73.   Against a grey background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Septime Severe, excavated  from Choud El Battan sculpted circa 193-211AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.73
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, excavated  from Carthage made circa 161-180 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.965.  Against a white background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, excavated  from Carthage made circa 161-180 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.965.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, excavated  from Carthage made circa 161-180 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.965
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Vitellius, excavated  from Althiburos sculpted circa 20 April 69-20 Dec 69AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.1784.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Vitellius, excavated  from Althiburos sculpted circa 20 April 69-20 Dec 69AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.1784. Against a grey art background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Vespesien, excavated  from Althiburos sculpted circa  69-79AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.1025
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Vespesien, excavated  from Althiburos sculpted circa  69-79AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.1025. Against a grey art background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa late second century. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa late second century. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Lucius Verus, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa 161-169 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Lucius Verus, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa 161-169 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis.   Against a grey background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Lucius Verus, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa 161-169 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis. Against a grey art background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Gordian 1st, excavated from Carthage ( ruled 3 months in 238AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 3212.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Gordian 1st, excavated from Carthage ( ruled 3 months in 238AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 3212
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Caracalla, excavated from Thuburbo-Majus, sculpted circa 211-217AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 1347.  Against a white background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Caracalla, excavated from Thuburbo-Majus, sculpted circa 211-217AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 1347.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Augustus, excavated from El-Jem, sculpted circa 27BC-14AD The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 72.  Against a white background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Augustus, excavated from El-Jem, sculpted circa 27BC-14AD The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 72
  • Bronze head of possibly Trebonianus Gallus, 251-253 A.D., inv 15032, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy, white background
  • Bronze head of possibly Trebonianus Gallus, 251-253 A.D., inv 15032, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy, grey background
  • Bronze head of possibly Trebonianus Gallus, 251-253 A.D., inv 15032, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy, grey art background
  • Roman sarcophagus depicting a battle between Achilles and Pentesilea and Amazons, the faces of the deceased have been sculpted over the Greek heroes, circa 230-250 AD, inv 933, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  white background
  • Roman sarcophagus depicting a battle between Achilles and Pentesilea and Amazons, the faces of the deceased have been sculpted over the Greek heroes, circa 230-250 AD, inv 933, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  art background
  • The celebrated Greek statue known as 'The Belvedere Torso', possibly of Greek hero Ajax, signed by Athenian neo-Attic sculptor Apollonios, ist century BC, inv 1192, Pope Clement collection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy, art background
  • The celebrated Greek statue known as 'The Belvedere Torso', possibly of Greek hero Ajax, signed by Athenian neo-Attic sculptor Apollonios, ist century BC, inv 1192, Pope Clement collection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  art background
  • Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  white background
  • , Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Roman ststue of Apollo with a lyre, copied from an earlier 4th cebtury BC Hellenistic statue, from a group of Muses found in Villa de Cassius at Tivoli,  inv 310, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Second century AD Roman statue of Urania holding, the muse of atronomy holding  a globe, the statue was restored from two separte staues of the period, inv 293, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey background
  • Second century AD Roman statue of Urania holding, the muse of atronomy holding  a globe, the statue was restored from two separte staues of the period, inv 293, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  art background
  • 2nd century Roman statue of Venus known as the Venere Felice, inspired by the Hellenistic stsue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made by Greek sculptor Praixiteles in the 4th century BC. Possibly a Venus's face is a portrait of Sallustia who dedicated the statue with Helpidus, and the Eros may be a portrait of her young son. inv 129, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Gilded bronze 1st century AD Roman statue of Hercules found buried near Pompey's Theatre having possibly been struck by lightening and given a customary Roman burial. A Roman copy of a Hellenistic Athenian staue from around 390-370 BC, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey background
  • Gilded bronze 1st century AD Roman statue of Hercules found buried near Pompey's Theatre having possibly been struck by lightening and given a customary Roman burial. A Roman copy of a Hellenistic Athenian staue from around 390-370 BC, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  art background
  • Gilded bronze 1st century AD Roman statue of Hercules found buried near Pompey's Theatre having possibly been struck by lightening and given a customary Roman burial. A Roman copy of a Hellenistic Athenian staue from around 390-370 BC, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  black background
  • Gilded bronze 1st century AD Roman statue of Hercules found buried near Pompey's Theatre having possibly been struck by lightening and given a customary Roman burial. A Roman copy of a Hellenistic Athenian staue from around 390-370 BC, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • 2nd century Roman statue of Venus known as the Venere Felice, inspired by the Hellenistic stsue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made by Greek sculptor Praixiteles in the 4th century BC. Possibly a Venus's face is a portrait of Sallustia who dedicated the statue with Helpidus, and the Eros may be a portrait of her young son. inv 129, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  white background
  • 2nd century Roman statue of Venus known as the Venere Felice, inspired by the Hellenistic stsue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made by Greek sculptor Praixiteles in the 4th century BC. Possibly a Venus's face is a portrait of Sallustia who dedicated the statue with Helpidus, and the Eros may be a portrait of her young son. inv 129, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey  background
  • 2nd century Roman statue of Venus known as the Venere Felice, inspired by the Hellenistic stsue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made by Greek sculptor Praixiteles in the 4th century BC. Possibly a Venus's face is a portrait of Sallustia who dedicated the statue with Helpidus, and the Eros may be a portrait of her young son. inv 129, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  black background
  • 2nd century Roman statue of Venus known as the Venere Felice, inspired by the Hellenistic stsue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made by Greek sculptor Praixiteles in the 4th century BC. Possibly a Venus's face is a portrait of Sallustia who dedicated the statue with Helpidus, and the Eros may be a portrait of her young son. inv 129, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  black background
  • 2nd century Roman statue of Venus known as the Venere Felice, inspired by the Hellenistic stsue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made by Greek sculptor Praixiteles in the 4th century BC. Possibly a Venus's face is a portrait of Sallustia who dedicated the statue with Helpidus, and the Eros may be a portrait of her young son. inv 129, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • 2nd century Roman statue of Venus known as the Venere Felice, inspired by the Hellenistic stsue of Aphrodite of Cnidus made by Greek sculptor Praixiteles in the 4th century BC. Possibly a Venus's face is a portrait of Sallustia who dedicated the statue with Helpidus, and the Eros may be a portrait of her young son. inv 129, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey  background
  • 1st century AD Roman statue of Silenus pouring wine from a jug. The head is from the Flavian period and the body 1st century. A copy of an earlier Hwellenistic sculpture by the school of Lysippus, inv 323, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  art background
  • 1st century AD Roman statue of Silenus pouring wine from a jug. The head is from the Flavian period and the body 1st century. A copy of an earlier Hwellenistic sculpture by the school of Lysippus, inv 323, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey background
  • Roman staue of Lucius Verus with the idealised body of Diomedes, AD 160-170, inv 6095, Naples National Archaeological Museum, white background
  • Roman Bronze sculpture of Silenus from atrium of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey art background
  • Full length frontal view of 2nd - 1st century BC Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Marine Venus' Type with a dolphin, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6296, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline' Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6296, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • Full length frontal view of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline' Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6296, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey art background
  • Full length frontal view of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, white background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • Close up  tree quarter view of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Bronze sculpture bust known as 'Sylla" from the tablinum of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, white background
  • Full view of Roman Bronze sculpture bust known as 'Sylla" from the tablinium of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, black background
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey art background
  • End of 2nd century beginning of 3rd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Hercules at rest copied from the second half of the 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6001, Farnese Collection, Museum of Archaeology, Italy, grey background
  • Original Roman bronze statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback. 175 AD. Marcus Aurelus was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. In 1979 it was discovered that the the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the courtyard of the Capitline Museum, had suffered badly from corrosion, particularly in its legs. The staue was removed from Michael Angelo’s plinth and was transferred to the National Instution for the Restoration of works of art for preservation. On the 11th of April 1990 the restored statue was returned to the Cpitaline courtyard and covered with a glass protective casing. The glass box ruined the design of Michael Angelo’s courtyard and it was decided to make a copy to display in the courted and move the original into the Capitoiline Musuem. This is a rare example of a bronze equestrian statue as it became common practice for the Romans in the late empire to melt down bronze statues to mint coins. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Matidia circa119 AD from Via Giolitti, Rome. Matidia was Sabina’s mother and Hadrian’s wife. The high level of idealisation of the portrait suggests that it was made after her death. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble statue of the Esquiline Venus or Aphrodite dated to the 1st cent. It was found in 1874 in Piazza Dante on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, probably part of the site of the Horti Lamiani, one of the imperial gardens, rich archaeological sources of classical sculpture. The Esquiline Venus is an example of the Pasitelean “eclectic" style of the Neo-Attic school. It combines elements from a variety of other previous schools - a Praxitelean idea of the nude female form; a face, muscular torso, and small high breasts in the fifth-century BC severe style; and pressed-together thighs typical of Hellenistic sculptures. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble statue of the Esquiline Venus or Aphrodite dated to the 1st cent. It was found in 1874 in Piazza Dante on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, probably part of the site of the Horti Lamiani, one of the imperial gardens, rich archaeological sources of classical sculpture. The Esquiline Venus is an example of the Pasitelean “eclectic" style of the Neo-Attic school. It combines elements from a variety of other previous schools - a Praxitelean idea of the nude female form; a face, muscular torso, and small high breasts in the fifth-century BC severe style; and pressed-together thighs typical of Hellenistic sculptures. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble statue of the Esquiline Venus or Aphrodite dated to the 1st cent. It was found in 1874 in Piazza Dante on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, probably part of the site of the Horti Lamiani, one of the imperial gardens, rich archaeological sources of classical sculpture. The Esquiline Venus is an example of the Pasitelean “eclectic" style of the Neo-Attic school. It combines elements from a variety of other previous schools - a Praxitelean idea of the nude female form; a face, muscular torso, and small high breasts in the fifth-century BC severe style; and pressed-together thighs typical of Hellenistic sculptures. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman sculpted head of Dionysus inspired by a Hellenistic original. Found in the Horti Lamiani near the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, Rome. M.C. Inv 1129, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st. Susa was one of the residential cities of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes.  The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st. Susa was one of the residential cities of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes.  The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st. Susa was one of the residential cities of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes.  The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st. Susa was one of the residential cities of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes.  The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian stone relief sculpture. announcing a land deed of Adad-apla-iddina, 4th Dynasty king of Babylon from 1067 BC to 1046 BC . Copied from an original in the Pushkin Museum, Moscow. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Babylonian Hammurabi stone relief sculpture. Hammurabi was the sixth Amorite king of Babylon from 1792 BC to 1750 BC . Hammurabi (standing), depicted as receiving his royal insignia from Shamash. Hammurabi holds his hands over his mouth as a sign of prayer. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta tiled panels depicting mythical Griffins. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran.. Inv AS 332607, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, from the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta tiled panels depicting mythical Griffins. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran.. Inv AS 332607, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Sculpture depicting  Kassite or 3rd Dynasty of Babylon King Meli-Shipak II commemorating a donation of land to his daughter-Hannubat Nannaya. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. The king dressed in a long robe with his right hand raised in a gesture of greeting. With his left hand he grasps the wrist of his daughter. The princess carries in her left hand a nine-stringed harp. Both face an enthroned goddess Nanya, a deity worshipped especially at Uruk[, who is dressed in a flounced or segmented garment and donning a feathered mitre and sits on the far side of a cultic censer on a stand. Above them are the symbols of three divinities astral: the star of Ishtar, the sun god Shamash and Sin of the crescent moon are in the sky. The rest of the stele has been entirely defaced, possibly by an Elamite king intending to have his own inscription engraved. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Basalt Babylonian sculpture usurped by an Elamite king. 12th cent. BC from Suse. Inv AO 30043, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta tiled panels depicting mythical Griffins. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran.. Inv AS 332607, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta tiled panels depicting mythical Griffins. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran.. Inv AS 332607, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran. Susa was one of the residential cityes of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes. Inv Ab3312-21, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Stone Stele depicting  a ceremonial procession of Babylonian Gods. Circa 1186-1172 BC excavated from Susa where it had been taken as a spoil of war. Under the coils of the snake that wraps around the stele are represented the principal divinities of pantheon of Babylon as symbols. Below is a procession of two musicians and animals. Crenellated walls and towers surround the area reserve for an inscription that was never engraved. A horned serpent, emblem of the god Marduk, wraps around the base. Inv Sb 25. The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels of the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The gate was decorated with reprentations of bulls, the symbol of the weather god Adad, and dragons (Babylonian Mushhushu), the symbol of the city God Marduk. The mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Coloured glazed terracotta brick panels depicting Achaemenid Persian royal bodyguards or archers. From the reign of Darius 1st and the First Persian or Achaemenid Empire around 510 BC excavated from the Palace of Daius 1st Susa, present day Iran. Susa was one of the residential cityes of the Achaemenid Kings. The Palaces are noteworthy for their elaborate decorations which can be considered exemplary of art at a royal court. The walls of Darius’s palace at Susa were embellished with colourful reliefs made from glazed bricks on the Babylonian model. It is not certain which rooms of the palace was decorated with representations of a procession of royal bodyguards or archers, dressed in richly decorative costumes. Inv Ab3312-21, The Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting the mythical composite animal has the head and the body of a snake, the front legs of a lion, the hind legs of a bird and a scorpion sting in the tail the symbol of the city God Marduk. From the facade of the  first smaller Ishtar Gate, Babylon, dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The Ishtar Gate, Babylon, was situated in the northern wall of the city and was named after the goddess Ishtar. The ground plan and debris of the gate buildings were uncovered during the German excavation from 1899-1917 directed by Robert Koldewey. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Gypsum, schist, shells and lapis lazuli statue of Ebih-Il, early Dynastic; Shakkanakku (military governor) of the ancient city-state of Mari in present day eastern Syria, dating from circa 2340 BC or from the Akkadian period of rule Circa 2250 BC.. The statue carries a cuneiform inscription in Akkadian. Excavated from; the temple of Ishtar at Mari by André Parrot in 1934-1935 the statue measures; 52.5 cm (20.7 in) high; 20.6 cm (8.1 in) wide and 30 cm (11.8 in) deep. Department of Oriental Antiquities; Richelieu; ground floor; room 1b; inv AO 17551; Louvre Museum; Paris
  • Coloured glazed brick panels depicting Lions stiding from the facade of the Throne Room dating from 604-562 BC. Babylon (present day Iraq). The throne room is situated in the third courtyard of the complex of the royal palace. Its 56 meters wide facade was decorated with coloured glazed bricks. A tentative reconstruction shows the composition of the upper part of the facade, including the stylised palms and geometric patterned registers. Two original sections are displayed on the left next to the Ishtar Gate. The lower part f the facade with representations of the striding lions was predominantly reconstructed from the original baked brick fragments. The frieze of lions was presumably arranged symmetrically so the animals faced towards the central main entrance to the Throne room. The throne room was excavated by Robert Koldewey between 1899 and 1917. It was used as an official reception room. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus) of the Venus Felix Type , copied from a  2nd to 1st century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6300, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus) of the Venus Felix Type , copied from a  2nd to 1st century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6300, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus) of the Venus Felix Type , copied from a  2nd to 1st century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6300 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6283  Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238  Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Bronze Hellanistic original from the mid 3rd century BC  attributed to the Greek sculptor Doldalsas of Bethynia,  inv 6293, Farnese Collection - Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Aphrodite (Venus), ‘Dresden Capitoline Type, copied from a Hellanistic Greek original,  inv 6238 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on the Christian sarcophagus side od Marcus Claudianus depicting scenes from  the new testament , circa 330 - 335 AD from the via della Lungara near S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side depiction the Muses, circa 280 - 290 AD from the Villa Celimontana. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the second half of the 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Marittima, Torre Astura Italy.  Silenus was the tutor to Dionysus is portrayed here as he was portrayed on stage in the Roman theatres. His mask is that of the theatre and he is wearing a lambskin cloak and hairy tights.  Inv 135769, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman relief sculpture panel decorated on both sides with masks from the second half of the 1st cent. AD excavated from the Valle Giardino, Nemi, Italy. The panel is sculpted on both sides; the front side depicts the half moon shaped face of a deity wearing a crown.  Inv 112158, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman relief sculpture panel decorated on both sides with masks from the second half of the 1st cent. AD excavated from the Valle Giardino, Nemi, Italy. The panel is sculpted on both sides; the front side depicts the half moon shaped face of a deity wearing a crown.  Inv 112158, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of a young Satyr from the Hadranic period circa 117-138 AD excavated from an area near the via XX Settembre and Via Firenza, Rome, Italy. A young Satyr, wearing a panther’s skin tied on the right shoulder, plays the tibia oblique (flute) whist reclining next to a tree trunk. The statue is based on a Greek prototype from the school of Greek sculptor Praxiteles created around 300 BC.  Inv 551, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an African Acrobat from early Imperial period excavated from the Villa Patrizi, via Nomentana, Rome, Italy. A young African performs an acrobatic trick very similar to those performed by tribal members from an area of the Nile, the Tentyitae (described by Pliny in Naturalis Historia), where skilled divers dive into the water from the backs of crocodiles. The work is based on a hellenistic original and here has beed adapted for the Roman period as a fountain decoration. The hole in the acrobats mouth is a water spout.  Inv 40009, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an African Acrobat from early Imperial period excavated from the Villa Patrizi, via Nomentana, Rome, Italy. A young African performs an acrobatic trick very similar to those performed by tribal members from an area of the Nile, the Tentyitae (described by Pliny in Naturalis Historia), where skilled divers dive into the water from the backs of crocodiles. The work is based on a hellenistic original and here has beed adapted for the Roman period as a fountain decoration. The hole in the acrobats mouth is a water spout.  Inv 40009, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Apollo. known as the Chigi Apollo,  mid 2nd cent. AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. As suggested by the quiver strap slung across the body, the god held a bow and arrow , in a pose of absorbed meditation. Wrapped around the tree trunk which acts as a support are gods attributes: the laurel and the snake. This classical statue is a reworking of an original Greek statue of the 4th cent. BC.  Inv 75675, The National Roman Museum, Rome, ItalyThe National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Statue of an Amazon on horseback and a Barbarian, Circa mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the  Imperial villa near Faro, Italy. An Amazon perched on a rearing horse clashes with a barbarian who attempts to deal a final blow before dying. The work is based on a Hellenistic original from the Pergamon school from the second half of the 2nd cent. B.C, The group was displayed in the Imperial villa  with another of the same theme now in the Borghese collection. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Sabina, circa 135 AD excavated from the via Appia, Rome. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman bust of Alexander the Great, 2nd cent B.C bronze with gold leaf. The head is from a smaller than life size statue. The elongated curls, the parted locks and the diadem that fastens the hair at the back, are clear indications that the head is a portrait of the Macedonian King Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.). Inv 66177, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare Greek bronze statue known as the Hellenistic Prince, a 2nd cent BC Hellenistic bronze, one of the few in existence.  The figure is leaning with its left arm on a long shaft, a modern replica of the original bronze spear. The head clearly shows that the artist intended it as a portrait as it is proportionally smaller than the rest of the body. The letter L. VI.P.L.XXIIX, later incised on the abdomen are inventory numbers that included the statue in the catalogue of works of art present in Rome during the Republican period. Records of the catalogue (Tabulae) ere kept in the Tabulatium archives on the Capitoline Hill. The figure is represented in heroic nudity and is a copy of a famous statue by Lysippus (371-305 BC) of Alexander the Great. The statue is considered to depict a Hellenistic Prince, possibly an early portrait of Attalus II, King of Pergamon. More recent interpretations take into account the realistic facial features and consider the work to be a portrait of a Roman who had ties to the Greek world and wished to be represented as a Hellenistic Prince. This is a rare example of a 2nd cent BC Hellenistic bronze statue  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare Greek bronze statue known as the Hellenistic Prince, a 2nd cent BC Hellenistic bronze, one of the few in existence.  The figure is leaning with its left arm on a long shaft, a modern replica of the original bronze spear. The head clearly shows that the artist intended it as a portrait as it is proportionally smaller than the rest of the body. The letter L. VI.P.L.XXIIX, later incised on the abdomen are inventory numbers that included the statue in the catalogue of works of art present in Rome during the Republican period. Records of the catalogue (Tabulae) ere kept in the Tabulatium archives on the Capitoline Hill. The figure is represented in heroic nudity and is a copy of a famous statue by Lysippus (371-305 BC) of Alexander the Great. The statue is considered to depict a Hellenistic Prince, possibly an early portrait of Attalus II, King of Pergamon. More recent interpretations take into account the realistic facial features and consider the work to be a portrait of a Roman who had ties to the Greek world and wished to be represented as a Hellenistic Prince. This is a rare example of a 2nd cent BC Hellenistic bronze statue  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Septimius Severus made between 196 and 197 AD and excavated from Ostia. Severus became Roman emperor in 193 AD After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta who fought constantly until Caracalla had Geta murdered. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Septimius Severus made between 196 and 197 AD and excavated from Ostia. Severus became Roman emperor in 193 AD After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta who fought constantly until Caracalla had Geta murdered. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Publius Septimius Antoninus Geta better known as Geta brother of Caracalla, made between 209 and 212 AD and excavated from the via XX Septembre, Rome. Geta was the younger son of Septimius Severus by his second wife Julia Domna. Geta  was a Roman emperor who ruled with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 until his death, when he was murdered on Caracalla's orders.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Nerva, circa  96 to 98 AD excavated from Tivoli. Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98 AD. On 18 September 96 AD Domitian was assassinated and Nerva became Emperor  at the age of sixty-five after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from the ancient market, Rome. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from Albano Laziale. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Athena (Roman Minerva) Sitting - from the Augustan period circa 63-43 BC the statue is a copy of a  5th century BC Greek  original, found in a palace on the Via Marmorato off the piazza dell’Emporio, Rome. The statue represents the goddess Minerva, dressed in chiton and himation which covers her head. The face and neck, now lost, have been substituted by a plaster cast of the Athena Carpegna. The aegis with the gorge emblem on her breast have enabled the goddess to be identified as Athena, the Roman Minerva, genially depicted in the guise of a helmeted female warrior. Its remarkable size suggests that this was a cult image, although a hypothesis remains linking it to the temple of Minerva on the Aventine. The sculpture bears the hallmark of a second of the 5th century BC Hellenistic Greek statue  made by Phidias. but uses different materials from the original which would have been in gold and ivory .National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Athena (Roman Minerva) Sitting - from the Augustan period circa 63-43 BC the statue is a copy of a  5th century BC Greek  original, found in a palace on the Via Marmorato off the piazza dell’Emporio, Rome. The statue represents the goddess Minerva, dressed in chiton and himation which covers her head. The face and neck, now lost, have been substituted by a plaster cast of the Athena Carpegna. The aegis with the gorge emblem on her breast have enabled the goddess to be identified as Athena, the Roman Minerva, genially depicted in the guise of a helmeted female warrior. Its remarkable size suggests that this was a cult image, although a hypothesis remains linking it to the temple of Minerva on the Aventine. The sculpture bears the hallmark of a second of the 5th century BC Hellenistic Greek statue  made by Phidias. but uses different materials from the original which would have been in gold and ivory .National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Bust of Antinous - late Hadrianic period circa 130-138AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Bust of Antinous - late Hadrianic period circa 130-138AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Bust of Antinous - late Hadrianic period circa 130-138AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Relief panal from the Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman Relief panal from the Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculptured relief with cupids about to sacrifice bulls, from the Temple of Venus Genetrix in the Forum of Caesar Rome 30 AD , inv 6718 Farnese Collection, Naples Archaeological Museum
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of an Tiberius, 30 AD , inv 6052, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of an Tiberius, 30 AD , inv 6052, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Faun, a 2nd century AD copy from an original of a late 2nd - 1st century BC late Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6332 Farnes Collection Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture known as the ‘Flora Maggiore’ , a 2nd century AD, inv no 5978 Farnese Collection, Naples   Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture known as the ‘Flora Maggiore’ , a 2nd century AD, inv no 5978 Farnese Collection, Naples   Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Ganymede with an eagle, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC late Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Ganymede with an eagle, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC late Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Naples  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Ganymede with an eagle, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC late Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405 Farnese Collection, Naples  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405  Farnese Collection, Naples  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a warrior on horseback, a 2nd century AD copy from an original 2nd century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6405 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Antinous as Bacchus, a 2nd century AD, inv no 6314 Farnese Collection, Naples Archaeological Muueum
  • Roman marble sculpture of Antinous as Bacchus, a 2nd century AD, inv no 6314 Farnese Collection, Naples Archaeological Muueum
  • Roman marble sculpture of a male figure restored as Augustus 2nd century AD, inv no 6053, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a male figure restored as Augustus 2nd century AD, inv no 6053,Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of a male figure restored as Augustus 2nd century AD, inv no 6053, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Lucius Verus with the body of Diomedes, Cuma Munich Type, 160-170 AD, inv 6095 Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Athena from the tabling of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture of Athena from the tabling of the Villa of the Papyri in Herculaneum, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of an unkown women, Late Trajan period 98-117 AD , inv 6074 Farnese Collection, Naples  Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Sophocles, Farnese Type, 1st century AD copy from an original 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6413, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Antisthenes, 2nd century AD copy from an original 340-330 BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6159, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Antisthenes, 2nd century AD copy from an original 340-330 BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6159, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Sophocies, 1st Century AD from an original early 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6133, Museum of Archaeology, Italy Roman marble sculpture bust of Sophocles, 1st Century AD from an original early 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6133, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Sophocies, 1st Century AD from an original early 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6133, Museum of Archaeology, Italy Roman marble sculpture bust of Sophocles, 1st Century AD from an original early 4th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6133, Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Pindar, 1 130-140 AD from an original mid 5th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6144, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Pindar, 1 130-140 AD from an original mid 5th century BC Hellanistic Greek original, inv 6144, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Roman marble sculpture bust of Emperor Domitian  81-96 AD, inv 6061 Farnese Collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy

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