• Shrine to the Virgin Mary in The Stone Gate entrance Kamenita Vrata) to Zagreb's Gornji Grad, Croatia
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Stock photos of  City wall and roof to views of Dubrovnik Croatia
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Entrance to Bishop's Palace gardens - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • Stock photos of  the city wall and roof to views of Dubrovnik Croatia
  • Stock photos of  City wall and roof to views of Dubrovnik Croatia
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Selection of fresh red and yellow tomatoes and plum tomatoes food photography
  • Whole coriander Seeds - stock photos
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • Stock photos of roof top views and courtyards - Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Electrum, gold silver alloy, Mycenaean death mask from Grave delta and Gamma, Grave Circle B, Mycenae, Greece. National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  White background.
  • Electrum, gold silver alloy, Mycenaean death mask from Grave delta and Gamma, Grave Circle B, Mycenae, Greece. National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  Grey Background
  • Electrum, gold silver alloy, Mycenaean death mask from Grave delta and Gamma, Grave Circle B, Mycenae, Greece. National Archaeological Museum of Athens
  • Animal quarters in the original interior of The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original bedroom interior with original box-beds of The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • yellow tomatoes amongst other mixed tomatoes
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Fresh picked plum tomatoes
  • Fresh Sussex plum tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Vittoris vine tomatoes
  • Mixed fresh yellow & red Pomodorino Tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Mixed beefsteak, cheery, plum & tom tom vive tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Fresh picked plum tomatoes
  • Mixed beefsteak, cheery, plum & tom tom vive tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Cheddar cheese and fresh tomatoes food photos.
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • Stock photos of roof top views and courtyards - Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Stock photos of Panoramic roof top views of Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Stock photos of roof top views and courtyards - Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh  plum Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Organic beef burger with tomato relish and salad in a bun photo. Funky Stock Photos
  • beef burger with sweetcorn relish and salad in a bun photos. Funky Stock Photos
  • beef burger with sweetcorn relish and salad in a bun photos. Funky Stock Photos
  • Red and Yellow Tomatoes on the vine
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • Electrum, gold silver alloy, Mycenaean death mask from Grave delta and Gamma, Grave Circle B, Mycenae, Greece. National Archaeological Museum of Athens.  Black Background
  • Electrum, gold silver alloy, Mycenaean death mask from Grave delta and Gamma, Grave Circle B, Mycenae, Greece. National Archaeological Museum of Athens
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original interior of an isle of Lewis White house which replaced the Black hosuses on the Island, Scotland
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Hen coupe in the store room  of The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image peat pile oustide the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Sussex Plum Tomaotes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Selection of fresh red and yellow tomatoes and plum tomatoes food photography
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Art photo of Mushrooms by photographer Paul E Williams. Available to buy online as wall art prints.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • Photo of a late Helladic jug decorated with serpentine bands showing Cycladic and Minoan influences.   Mycenae Shaft Grave V, Greece. 16th to early 15th century BC,  cat no: 950,  National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • Photo of a late Helladic jug decorated with serpentine bands showing Cycladic and Minoan influences.   Mycenae Shaft Grave V, Greece. 16th to early 15th century BC,  cat no: 950,  National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Ancient Egyptian bed delonging to Kha , tomb of Kha, Theban Tomb 8 , mid-18th dynasty (1550 to 1292 BC), Turin Egyptian Museum. <br />
<br />
According to excavator Shciaparelli " the beds were found in Kcha's tomb also. The larger one, his own, was found in the antechamber." Egyptians believed that in the Afterlife they would require the same comforts as they enjoyed in life so beds and many other worldly requirements were put into their tombs.
  • Egyptian Roman mummy portrait or Fayum mummy portrait painted panel of a man, Roman Period, 1st to 3rd cent AD, Egypt. Egyptian Museum, Turin. Black background,<br />
<br />
Mummy portraits or Fayum mummy portraits (also Faiyum mummy portraits) are a type of naturalistic painted portrait on wooden boards attached to Upper class mummies from Roman Egypt. They belong to the tradition of panel painting, one of the most highly regarded forms of art in the Classical world. he portraits covered the faces of bodies that were mummified for burial. Extant examples indicate that they were mounted into the bands of cloth that were used to wrap the bodies.
  • Ancient Egyptian shabti box, wood, Intermediate Period, 21st-22nd Dynasty (1076-746 BC), Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
Floor 1 room 10 of Museum - Among the 401 shabti found in this tomb were 36 overseerers, one for every 10 servants. These were maent to serve the deceased in the afterlife<br />
<br />
Essential items of funerary equipment from the New Kingdom on, shabti figures, of which there could be from 1 to over 400 examples in a single tomb, were meant to substitute for the deceased whenever he or she was called upon to perform manual labor in the afterlife. the shabti box is a decorated wooden box to hold the figures
  • Ancient Egyptian shabti box, wood, Intermediate Period, 21st-22nd Dynasty (1076-746 BC), Thebes, Egyptian Museum, Turin. Grey background.<br />
<br />
Floor 1 room 10 of Museum - Essential items of funerary equipment from the New Kingdom on, shabti figures, of which there could be from 1 to over 400 examples in a single tomb, were meant to substitute for the deceased whenever he or she was called upon to perform manual labor in the afterlife. the shabti box is a decorated wooden box to hold the figures<br />
<br />
Essential items of funerary equipment from the New Kingdom on, shabti figures, of which there could be from 1 to over 400 examples in a single tomb, were meant to substitute for the deceased whenever he or she was called upon to perform manual labor in the afterlife. the shabti box is a decorated wooden box to hold the figures
  • Ancient Egyptian stele odedicated to Amon Re the "good Ram" by foreman Baki, limestone, New Kingdom, 19th Dynasty, (1290-1213 BC), Deir el-Medina, Drovetti cat 1549. Egyptian Museum, Turin. black background. Reign of Ramesses II.<br />
<br />
This round-topped stele is carved in low relief and painted <br />
in several colours. The pictorial plane is divided into two <br />
registers, the upper one containing two rams facing each <br />
other. The animals, with cobras rising on their foreheads, <br />
wear tall headdresses composed of two tall plumes with a <br />
solar disk at the centre. Between them is a small offering <br />
table with lotus flowers. The mirror image hieroglyphic <br />
inscription refers to the rams and reveals their divine <br />
nature as that of Amun-Ra. In the register below, <br />
foreman Baki is shown in the pose of adoration.
  • Ancient Egyptian Cat Sarcophagus conating cat mummy, Late to Plolomaic Period, (722-30 BC), Egyptian Museum, Turin.Old Fund Cat 2361. Grey background. <br />
<br />
Animal mummification was common in ancient Egypt. They mummified various animals. It was an enormous part of Egyptian culture, not only in their role as food and pets, but also for religious reasons. They were typically mummified for four main purposes—to allow beloved pets to go on to the afterlife, to provide food in the afterlife, to act as offerings to a particular god, and because some were seen as physical manifestations of specific deities that the Egyptians worshipped. Bast, the cat goddess is an example of one such deity.
  • Ancient Egyptian shabtis doll, lwood, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty, (1538-1040 BC), Deir el Medina. Egyptian Museum, Turin.Grey background. <br />
<br />
shabti figures began to occur in Middle Kingdom tombs with a twofold nature: on <br />
the one hand, they were meant to be images of their owners, representatives of the deceased in the realm of the Lord of Eternity. <br />
On the other hand, they were also considered to be servants of the deceased, taking the role of the servant statues. The complex <br />
nature of the shabti figure as a substitute of both the owner and his or her servants remains unaltered during the New Kingdom
  • Hellenstic marble statue group of Aphrodite (Venus) with Pan and Eros, Circa 100 BC, House of Poseidonaistai of Beryttos, Delos, Athens National Archaeological Museum.  Cat no 3335. Against grey.<br />
<br />
The nude goddess Aphrodite (Venus) attempte to fend off goat footed Pan who make erotic advances towards her. Aphrodite holds a sandal in her right hand threatening Pan while the winged god Eros comes to her aid. According to an inscription on the statues base it was dedicated to Dionysus of Beryttos (Beirut) to hai ancestral gods.
  • Panoramic long view across "la Gravina" ravine to the Sassi of Matera at sunrise, Basilicata, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage site.<br />
<br />
The area of Matera has been occupied since the Palaeolithic (10th millennium BC) making it one of the oldest continually inhabited settlements in the world. <br />
The town of Matera was founded by the Roman Lucius Caecilius Metellus in 251 BC and remained a Roman town until  was conquered by the Lombards In AD 664 becoming part of the Duchy of Benevento.  Matera was subject to the power struggles of southern Italy coming under the rule of the Byzantine Roman, the Germans and finally Matera was ruled by the Normans from 1043 until the Aragonese took possession in the 15th century. <br />
<br />
At the ancient heart of Matera are cave dwellings known as Sassi. As the fortunes of Matera failed the sassy became slum dwelling and the appalling living conditions became be the disgrace of Italy. From the 1970’s families were forcibly removed from the Sassi and rehoused in the new town of Matera. Today tourism has regenerated Matera and the sassi have been modernised and are lived in again making them probably the longest inhabited houses in the world dating back 9000 years.
  • Panoramic long view across "la Gravina" ravine to the Sassi of Matera at sunrise, Basilicata, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage site.<br />
<br />
The area of Matera has been occupied since the Palaeolithic (10th millennium BC) making it one of the oldest continually inhabited settlements in the world. <br />
The town of Matera was founded by the Roman Lucius Caecilius Metellus in 251 BC and remained a Roman town until  was conquered by the Lombards In AD 664 becoming part of the Duchy of Benevento.  Matera was subject to the power struggles of southern Italy coming under the rule of the Byzantine Roman, the Germans and finally Matera was ruled by the Normans from 1043 until the Aragonese took possession in the 15th century. <br />
<br />
At the ancient heart of Matera are cave dwellings known as Sassi. As the fortunes of Matera failed the sassy became slum dwelling and the appalling living conditions became be the disgrace of Italy. From the 1970’s families were forcibly removed from the Sassi and rehoused in the new town of Matera. Today tourism has regenerated Matera and the sassi have been modernised and are lived in again making them probably the longest inhabited houses in the world dating back 9000 years.
  • Bayeux Tapestry Scene 22 and 23 - Harold and William go to Bayeux where holding two relics Harold swears fealty to Duke William
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Herakles or Hercules, Nessos and Deianira Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
The centaur Nessos agreed to carry Herakles’ (Hercules) wife Deianira across the river Euenos in Aitolia but tried to rape her in mid-stream. I the struggle that followed we see Herakles about to deliver a crushing blow with his club. Nessos has been beaten to her knees but is still fighting. Behind the centaur is the partly disrobed figure of Deianira
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Herakles or Hercules, Nessos and Deianira Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.     Against a white background.<br />
<br />
The centaur Nessos agreed to carry Herakles’ (Hercules) wife Deianira across the river Euenos in Aitolia but tried to rape her in mid-stream. I the struggle that followed we see Herakles about to deliver a crushing blow with his club. Nessos has been beaten to her knees but is still fighting. Behind the centaur is the partly disrobed figure of Deianira
  • Roman Sebasteion relief  sculpture of Herakles or Hercules, Nessos and Deianira Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey. <br />
<br />
The centaur Nessos agreed to carry Herakles’ (Hercules) wife Deianira across the river Euenos in Aitolia but tried to rape her in mid-stream. I the struggle that followed we see Herakles about to deliver a crushing blow with his club. Nessos has been beaten to her knees but is still fighting. Behind the centaur is the partly disrobed figure of Deianira
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Zeus and Prometheus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  <br />
<br />
Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Detail of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Zeus and Prometheus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Zeus and Prometheus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.   Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Close up of a Roman Sebasteion relief sculpture of Zeus and Prometheus, Aphrodisias Museum, Aphrodisias, Turkey.  Against a grey background. <br />
<br />
Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Wide picture of the Ambulatory corridor of the Great Hunt Roman mosaic and the entrance to the audience hall, room no 28, at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Great Hunt ambulatory is around 60 meters long (200 Roman feet) and connects the master’s northern apartments with the triclinium in the south. The door in the centre of the the Great Hunt ambulatory leads to audience hall. <br />
<br />
The Great Hunt Roman mosaic depicts African animals being hunted and put onto ships to be taken to the Colosseum.
  • Wide picture of the Ambulatory corridor of the Great Hunt Roman mosaic and the entrance to the audience hall, room no 28, at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Great Hunt ambulatory is around 60 meters long (200 Roman feet) and connects the master’s northern apartments with the triclinium in the south. The door in the centre of the the Great Hunt ambulatory leads to audience hall. <br />
<br />
The Great Hunt Roman mosaic depicts African animals being hunted and put onto ships to be taken to the Colosseum.
  • Wide picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting deer being caught in a net trap, room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Close up detail picture of the Roman mosaics of the small hunt depicting a hare about to be speared,  room no 24 at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Small Hunt room was used as a living room for guests of the Villa Romana del Casale. The Small hunt mosaic design has 4 registers running across the mosaic depicting hunting scenes. In the first register two servants are handling hunting dogs. In the second register figures are depicted burning incense at an altar to Diana, the goddess of hunting, before the hunt starts. The offering is being made by Constantius Clorus , the Caesar of Emperor Maximianus who owned the Villa Romana del Casale. Behind him is his son the future Emperor Constantine. To the right of the altar is a figure holding the reins of a horse dressed in a clavi decorated with ivy leaves indicating that he belongs to the family of Maximianus.
  • Ambulatory of the Great Hunt Roman mosaic, Wilder beast is loaded onto a ship, room no 28, at the Villa Romana del Casale, first quarter of the 4th century AD. Sicily, Italy. A UNESCO World Heritage Site.<br />
<br />
The Great Hunt ambulatory is around 60 meters long (200 Roman feet) and connects the master’s northern apartments with the triclinium in the south. The door in the centre of the the Great Hunt ambulatory leads to audience hall. <br />
<br />
The Great Hunt Roman mosaic depicts African animals being hunted and put onto ships to be taken to the Colosseum.
  • Roman mosaics - Metiochus and Parthenope Mosaic.  2nd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.   Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Metiochus and Parthenope, famous with their legendary love for eat: torn apart and then unified after years, they seem to represent the According to the myth, Parthenope is the sister of Polycrat e Ki taken an oath of virginity upon the Heraion which symbolizes the Metiochus is invited to the royal court and meets Parthenope Burin fails in love with Metiochus but in order to keep the oath she has taken, she and chooses to go exile. In this mosaic, we see the two figures sfttngsitting upon an In compliance with the story, the face of Metiochus is directed towards Part e whom he fell in love and the eyes of Parthenope stares at an indeterminate area due to the love she feels yet sees impossible. The mosaic is surrounded by triangular, double mesh ttke, and pyramidal borders. The piece was discovered during the rescue excavation conducted. in 1993. When exposed, it was understood that the main figures used to be at the middle of the mosaic were stolen the tomb-robbers. <br />
<br />
The mosaic was brought to Gaziantep Museum with a question mark labeled on it saying "Who knows where? In which country?" and began to be displayed temporarily after restoration. From the photographs sent by the Canadian Archaeologist Sheila Campbell, it was found out that the stolen parts were in the Merin collection in Houston USA and with the initiatives of the Ministry of Culture, the missing parts were brought In 2000 and the mosaic was put on display following the restoration. Those two eternal lovers, who were torn apart by traffickers of historical artefacts and kidnapped separately, have been unified after years.
  • Roman mosaics - The Gypsy Girls. The House of Menad. Ancient Zeugama, 2nd - 3rd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
It was discovered in the building called the House of Menad during the excavations conducted by the Gaziantep Museum. As the excavations continued, it was understood that almost all the mosaics inside the building had been stolen by historical _artifact; traffickers. The figure, called the Gypsy. Girl, was fortunately under the soil extracted from the illegal diggings and unseen by the traffickers; then it was brought to our Museum. She was liken to a Gypsy Girl as a joke during the excavations when she was unearthed with her uncombed hair, salient cheekbones, round face and earrings, and then has kept to be called with that name. <br />
<br />
There is no illuminating data regarding her identity but some scholrs claim that she is one of the -mnads present in  Dionysus festivals because of the tendrils near her 1.71eado, and others suggest that this is a portrait of Alexander the Great The most interesting feature of the mosaic is that it follows the beholder in every direction. A special technique was used in the mosaic in order to make her eyes more realistic. On the other hand, the fact that both joy and sorrow are reflected in her face indicates the stage reached in the art of portx4it. <br />
<br />
The piece was made, via the technique -called "three look" in the art of painting during the Hellenistic period. This technique was used by great painters as well. Da vincrs'Mona Lisa is an example for such paintings. With those characteristics, the piece has become the symbol of Zeugma and Gaziantep
  • Roman Mosaic - The Oceanos & Tethys Mosaic, fom The House of Oceanos, Zeugma.  2nd - 3rd century AD. Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.<br />
<br />
The Oceanos and Tethys Mosaic is the floor mosaic of the shallow pool of the House of Oceanos. In this mosaic, which belongs to the Early Roman Empire Period, Oceanos, the river god who is the origin of life, and his wife Tethys are represented. At the middle of the mosaic which is surrounded by a geometric triple tress borders there are Oceanos and his wife Tethys. Around them there are Eros figures riding various species of fish and dolphins symbolising the abundance of the sea. The most represented attributes of Oceanos are snake and fish.<br />
<br />
 in the mosaic, Oceanos is seen with chelas. Those chelas are among his most characteristic attributes. Though the tail of an eel is represented as his feet in the figures on ceramics, within the scope of the art of mosaic he is represented as a bust and only with the chelas on his head such as this one. His wife Tethys is right by his side and represented with wings upon her forehead. Between them, there is the dragon called Cetos which is a mythological sea creature. As is seen in the coins of Zeugma, the Euphrates River is expressed as a dragon. Besides these two figures, on the top-right of the mosaic, there is a young male figure which is thought to be Pan, the patron of fishermen and shepherds. The fact that Eros figures and Pan which are the side figures are located outward implies that the pool is built to allow walking around. <br />
<br />
The expression of the Oceanos as not an ocean but a river surrounding the world: By that the water, which vapours with the heat of the sun and then gives life to the nature by becoming rain, and which after being used by the nature reaches again the sea via the rivers is expressed. The water becomes aware of itself and its function by that cycle. This phenomenon is represented in the mosaic panel as the diversification of Ocenaos through unification wit
  • Toprak Bagis Belgesi  cuneiform donation document of winter  pasture to the shepherds of Uhhiva city. Hittite Period 1600 - 1450 BC.  Hattusa Boğazkale. Çorum Archaeological Museum, Corum, Turkey. Against a grey bacground.<br />
<br />
The document reads "The Big King donates the summery and winter pastures with shepherds of Uhhiva city to his servant Hassuli, head of the guardians. No one shall have the right to claim against Hassuli or his grandchildren in the future. The Big King's word is made of iron, which can never be changed or broken. Whoever changes his word shall be beheaded. This tablet was written by Hanukkuli, Sarpa, head of Hittite palace guardians before Iskanussu, commander-in-chief."
  • Recontructed fresco of an original found at Catalhoyuk. The hunters are believed by scholors to be wearing leopard skin costumes, Painted by Mutlu Gundiler. Reconstructed houses, 7500 BC to 5700 BC, Catalyhoyuk Archaeological Site, Çumra, Konya, Turkey
  • A clay oven below a ladder which led to the main entrance via the roof, which also allowed smoke out. A reconstruction of one of four Catalhoyuk houses to help archaeologists understand the finished structure of excavated ruins. 7500 BC to 5700 BC, Catalyhoyuk Archaeological Site, Çumra, Konya, Turkey
  • An exposed skeleton which were found in pits under the floors of some houses. On the wall are frescoes of what look like vultures, Scholars belive that dead bodies were subject to excarnation which means that their flesh was stripped from the body to leave the skeleton. A reconstruction of one of four Catalhoyuk houses to help archaeologists understand the finished structure of excavated ruins. 7500 BC to 5700 BC, Catalyhoyuk Archaeological Site, Çumra, Konya, Turkey
  • Reconstruction of 4 Catalhoyuk houses to help archaeologists understand the finished structure of excavated ruins. The leopard frescoes on the wall were not found in this room reconstruction. 7500 BC to 5700 BC, Catalyhoyuk Archaeological Site, Çumra, Konya, Turkey
  • A plastered bull skull and frescoes of a reconstruction of one of four Catalhoyuk houses to help archaeologists understand the finished structure of excavated ruins. 7500 BC to 5700 BC, Catalyhoyuk Archaeological Site, Çumra, Konya, Turkey
  • Aslantepe Hittite relief sculpted orthostat stone panel. Limestone, Aslantepe, Malatya, 1200-700 B.C. Anatolian Civilisations Museum, Ankara, Turkey.<br />
<br />
Scene of king's offering drink and sacrifice to the god. The god is on the deer, with the bow attached to his shoulder and with a triple bundle of lightning in his hand. The king looks at the god, and makes the libation to the god while carrying a scepter with a curled end - lituus. Behind the king is a servant holding a goat for sacrifice to the god. Hieroglyphs read; "God Parata, Strong King... ". <br />
<br />
Against a brown art background.
  • Painted colour verion of Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Painted colour verion of Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Painted colour verion of 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
In the center of the dining room was a table, with three couches (klinai in Greek, hence the name "triclinium") on which the diners reclined as they ate. The southern exposure of the room and its main color suggest it was meant to be used in the winter. The architect Vitruvius, writing in the 1st century after Christ, recommends a dark background that will absorb heat to make the rooms warmer in cold weather. The black color (atramentum), made from a mixture of charcoal and glue, was resistant to smoke from the fire and soot from the lamps. On the dark background delicate landscapes are painted in light colors: cityscapes with buildings, arches, and gateways, and rural scenes showing huts, animals, and rustic shrines. The lavish decoration is broken up by slender columns festooned with ivy. The capitals are crowned by graceful female figures (caryatids). A frieze at eye level has scenes in which the same figures keep reappearing: popular tales depicted in a lively fashion. The scenes of the frieze start with the rear of the right wall. Also on this wall, near the doorway. can be seen a restoration made in antiquity to close off another entrance. We can identify a part of the polychrome mosaic pavement of this room. with meanders and stacked cubes rendered in perspective. The modem arrangement does not reproduce the or final. but is intended to suggest the effect of the pavement in the room
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of Corridor F-G  of the Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.<br />
<br />
The corridor was a covered passageway that connected the two wings of the villa, partly straight and partly curved, following the shape of the central esedra. The elements that remain are from the inner walkway. The wall is divided by slender columns. Their capitals support female figures whose architectural function is in turn to support the columns of the superstructure. The female figures hold floral garlands that link them to one another. They may be meant to represent Caryatids, the women of Caria sold into slavery, who gave the name to female figures used as supports instead of columns. The most important part of the decoration is the small pictures in the upper zone: still lifes with masks from the theater alternate with imaginary landscapes, shrines, statues of divinities, little aedicula, and altars, the whole populated by figures of peasants, fishermen, and shepherds. The scene depicting a naval battle on the curved part may well refer to the battle of Actium that led to Rome's conquest of Egypt.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman fresco wall decorations of  Room E10 0f La Domus, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano, 130-140AD ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.<br />
<br />
 The white-ground central panel had a figured decoration, already obliterated by repairs carried out in antiquity. In the squares to the sides of the upper area, swathes of white fabric bordered by green leaves and berries are depicted against a purplish red background. The side walls are decorated in a similar symmetrical way; in the squares there are various decorative elements, a stag in flight with a quiver nearby (perhaps an allusion to the myth of Actaeon who was transformed into a stag by Artemis, or, more simply, to hunting), a small head (gorgoneion) contained between volutes.
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .   <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with a boat decorated for a festival and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .    Against a grey background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  Against a white background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  Against a black background.<br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Roman Fresco with boats and marine life from the second quarter of the first century AD. (mosaico fauna marina da porto fluviale di san paolo), museo nazionale romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. inv. 121462 .  <br />
The frescoes depict boats decorated as boats which went along the Tiber on festival days; their shape appears to be the caudicariae boats, used to transport merchandise. In the fresco fragment exhibited here (Ambiente E) the boat on the left depicts probably the group of 'side Serapide and Demetra on the stern, whereas the one on the right presents a crowned character on the bow and, on the stern, a feminine figure fluctuating in the air. Between the two boats, a young boy (a cupid or Palaimon-Portunus) rides a dolphin. All around are depicted several fish incredibly casting their shadows on the sea. The ichthyic fauna, lifeless as in still life decoration, is detailed as in a scientific catalogue. For the most part the represented species live next to the coast or were bred by the Romans in the piscinae salsac or in ponds. It is possible to recognize the rock mullet (mullus sunnuletus) and the mud one (mullus barbatu4 the scorpion fish (scorpoena) the dentex (dentex dentex), the aguglia (belone agus) the dolphin (delphinus delphis) and the golden mullet (lire curate).
  • Close up of an end of 7th to start of 6th century B.C Etruscan lid in the shape of a head of a Canopo style vase, used to hold funereal ashes from Chiusi, inv 94610, National Archaeological Museum Florence, Italy , black background
  • Close up of an end of 7th to start of 6th century B.C Etruscan lid in the shape of a head of a Canopo style vase, used to hold funereal ashes from Chiusi, inv 94610, National Archaeological Museum Florence, Italy , grey art background
  • Statue group identified as as the Laocoon described by Pliny as a masterpiece made by the sculptors of Rhodes. The Laocoon depicts a scene from the Trojan War in which Athena and Poseidon sent two great serpants to wrap themselves around Laocoon and his two sons to kill them. Circa 40-30BC, Pope Clement XIV coillection, Vatican Museum Rome, Italy,  grey art background
  • Original Roman bronze statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback. 175 AD. Marcus Aurelus was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. In 1979 it was discovered that the the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the courtyard of the Capitline Museum, had suffered badly from corrosion, particularly in its legs. The staue was removed from Michael Angelo’s plinth and was transferred to the National Instution for the Restoration of works of art for preservation. On the 11th of April 1990 the restored statue was returned to the Cpitaline courtyard and covered with a glass protective casing. The glass box ruined the design of Michael Angelo’s courtyard and it was decided to make a copy to display in the courted and move the original into the Capitoiline Musuem. This is a rare example of a bronze equestrian statue as it became common practice for the Romans in the late empire to melt down bronze statues to mint coins. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Original Roman bronze statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback. 175 AD. Marcus Aurelus was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. In 1979 it was discovered that the the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the courtyard of the Capitline Museum, had suffered badly from corrosion, particularly in its legs. The staue was removed from Michael Angelo’s plinth and was transferred to the National Instution for the Restoration of works of art for preservation. On the 11th of April 1990 the restored statue was returned to the Cpitaline courtyard and covered with a glass protective casing. The glass box ruined the design of Michael Angelo’s courtyard and it was decided to make a copy to display in the courted and move the original into the Capitoiline Musuem. This is a rare example of a bronze equestrian statue as it became common practice for the Romans in the late empire to melt down bronze statues to mint coins. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
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This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Photo of Roman relief sculpture, Aphrodisias, Turkey, Images of Roman art bas reliefs.  Prometheus is screaming in pain. Zeus had given him a terrible punishment for giving fire to man: he was tied to the Caucasus mountains and had his liver picked out daily by an eagle. Herakles shot the eagle and is undoing the first manacle. He wears his trade mark lion-skin and thrown his club to one side. A small mountain nymph, holding a throwing stick appears amongst the rocks.
  • Photo of Roman relief sculpture, Aphrodisias, Turkey, Images of Roman art bas reliefs.  Herakles is preparing to wrestle the Libyan giant Antaios. Herakles (left) is taking off his bow case to hang it on a pillar statue. Antaios (right) is binding up his head with ear protectors, next to him stands an oil basin used in the palaistra (wrestling ground). Antaios was a famous wrestler who challenged and killed all visitors to his country, until he was defeated by Herakles.
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Nerva, circa  96 to 98 AD excavated from Tivoli. Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98 AD. On 18 September 96 AD Domitian was assassinated and Nerva became Emperor  at the age of sixty-five after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • 2nd century AD Roman marble sculpture of Pan teaching Daphnis to play the pipes, a Roman copy late 2nd century BC Hellenistic Geek original attributed to Rodes sculptor Heliodoros. Pan's and Daphnis' heads and Daphnis' right arm are restorations.  The Farnese collection, Naples Museum of Archaeology, Italy
  • Gothic wood statue of the Head of Christ by  Jaume Cascalls. Carved alabaster with polychrome and gilt remains.  This head must have belonged to a Recumbent Christ which could have formed part of a sculptural group of the Holy Sepulchre. It probably came from the chapel of Corpus Christi of the convent of Sant Agustí Vell, Barcelona.<br />
Jaume Cascalls is one of the most important sculptors of the fourteenth century in Catalonia. This is borne out by his involvement over almost thirty years with the project of the royal pantheon in Poblet for King Peter the Ceremonious and with other large undertakings of the time. Today, on stylistic grounds, he is credited with this 'Head of Christ', which must have formed part of a sculptural group of the Holy Sepulchre, presumably from the church of the convent of Sant Agustí Vell in Barcelona. The break in the neck suggests it belonged to a full-length recumbent Christ, like the one kept at Sant Feliu in Girona and also attributed to Cascalls. National Museum of Catalan Art, inv no: 034879-000
  • Apse of Saint Peter de la Seu d'Urgell<br />
<br />
Second quarter of the twelfth century<br />
Fresco transferred to canvas<br />
From the church of St. Peter currently dedicated to St. Michael and St. Peter Cathedral group of Seu d'Urgell (Alt Urgell)<br />
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Acquisition of the Museum Board Campaign 1919-1923<br />
MNAC 15867<br />
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The apse is the most important part of the church as it was where the altar was located. The apse of La Seu d'Urgell like most Romanesque apses was decorated with frescoes of a Theophany (referring to images of the Incarnation of Jesus).High up in the semi circular cupola of the apse is a large image of Christ in Majesty, or Christ Pantocrator, in a mandorla, a pointed verticle oval shaped aureola which surrounds the figures of Christ and the Virgin Mary in traditional Christian art.  This is flanked by Tetramorph showing the four evangelical symbols - St Matthew the man, St Mark the lion, St Luke the ox, and John the eagle. In the middle register is are a series of  frescoes of the Apostles and the figure of Mary. The lower register, which has not been preserved, must have been painted curtains that imitated luxury fabrics.
  • Venus (Aphrodite) in Arms. A 2nd century AD marble Roman statue completed in the 16th century. The so called Venus in Arms shows Venus with a sword and armour accompanied by a cupid that is about to try on her oversized helmet. The statue belonged to the collection of Tiberio Ceuli, purchased by Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1576-1623) in 1607. The Roman head does not seem to belong to the statue. It graced one niche of the living room of the Villa Borghese.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 373 (Usual No Ma 370), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) “Capitoline Type”. 2nd centuryAD Roman statue in marble discovered at the Acqua Traversa near Rome.  The statue belong to a series of Roman replicas of a Greek original that reproduce a famous picture of goddess Aphrodite (Venus) and the best known copy is in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. The now lost, the Greek original dates from the 2nd century or 3rd BC and is known as the "Aphrodite of Knidos” in which Aphrodite accompanied by a cupid is surprised while bathing.  Inv MR 369   (or Ma 335), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) “Capitoline Type”. 2nd centuryAD Roman statue in marble discovered at the Acqua Traversa near Rome.  The statue belong to a series of Roman replicas of a Greek original that reproduce a famous picture of goddess Aphrodite (Venus) and the best known copy is in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. The now lost, the Greek original dates from the 2nd century or 3rd BC and is known as the "Aphrodite of Knidos” in which Aphrodite accompanied by a cupid is surprised while bathing.  Inv MR 369   (or Ma 335), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Sleeping Hermaphroditus, The Borghese Hermaphrodite.  A Life size ancient 2nd century AD Roman statue sculpted in Greek Marble and found in the grounds of Santa Maria della Vittoria, near the Baths of Diocletian, Rome. It was added to the Borghese Collection by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, in the 17th century and was named the "Borghese Hermaphroditus”. It was later sold to the occupying French and was removed it to The Louvre. Hermaphrodite, son of Hermes and Aphrodite had repels the advances of the nymph Salmacis. However, she got Zeus as their two bodies are united in a bisexual being. The Sleeping Hermaphroditus has been described as a good early Imperial Roman copy of a bronze original by the later of the two Hellenistic sculptors named Polycles (150 BC) the original bronze was mentioned in Pliny's Natural History. In 1619  Bernini sculpted the mattress on which the ancient marble of Hermaphrodite lies. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Ariadne sleeping a 2nd century AD Marble Roman statue from Italy. The girl is lying asleep on a rock and is a variation of the famous Sleeping Ariadne of the Vatican museum whose composition is reversed. in Greek mythology Ariadne was the daughter of Minos, King of Crete  and his queen Pasiphaë, daughter of Helios . When Thesius was sent to Crete to be sacrificed to the Minateur Ariadne fell in love at first sight, and helped him by giving him a sword and a ball of thread, so that he could find his way out of the Minotaur's labyrinth. She eloped with Theseus after he achieved his goal, and in most accounts of the myth, Theseus abandoned Ariadne sleeping on Naxos, and Dionysus rediscovered and wedded her. This Roman  Sculpture was inspired  by a Greek original of the 2nd century AD. inv MR 311 ( or Ma 340 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 372
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This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
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In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • The Venus of Arles (  Greek Goddess Aphrodite) is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) marble sculpture of Venus probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The style of the Venus of Arles, like the Venus de Milo, is not a fully nude figure both having draped clothes from the waist down. The first known example of a totally nude Venus is the 4th century BC  Aphrodite of Cnidus by.Praxiteles  The Venus of Arles was probably an earlier statue by Praxiteles known as the Aphrodite of Thespiae . <br />
The venus of Arles was found in 1651 by workmen digging a well in Arles. In 1681 it was given to Louis XIV to decorate the Galerie des Glaces of Versailles. The statue was moved to the Musée du Louvre after the French Revolution.
  • Sleeping Hermaphroditus.  A Life size ancient 2nd century AD Roman statue sculpted in Greek Marble and found in the grounds of Santa Maria della Vittoria, near the Baths of Diocletian, Rome. It was added to the Borghese Collection by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, in the 17th century and was named the "Borghese Hermaphroditus”. It was later sold to the occupying French and was removed it to The Louvre. Hermaphrodite, son of Hermes and Aphrodite had repels the advances of the nymph Salmacis. However, she got Zeus as their two bodies are united in a bisexual being. The Sleeping Hermaphroditus has been described as a good early Imperial Roman copy of a bronze original by the later of the two Hellenistic sculptors named Polycles (150 BC) the original bronze was mentioned in Pliny's Natural History. In 1619  Bernini sculpted the mattress on which the ancient marble of Hermaphrodite lies. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Sleeping Hermaphroditus.  A Life size ancient 2nd century AD Roman statue sculpted in Greek Marble and found in the grounds of Santa Maria della Vittoria, near the Baths of Diocletian, Rome. It was added to the Borghese Collection by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, in the 17th century and was named the "Borghese Hermaphroditus”. It was later sold to the occupying French and was removed it to The Louvre. Hermaphrodite, son of Hermes and Aphrodite had repels the advances of the nymph Salmacis. However, she got Zeus as their two bodies are united in a bisexual being. The Sleeping Hermaphroditus has been described as a good early Imperial Roman copy of a bronze original by the later of the two Hellenistic sculptors named Polycles (150 BC) the original bronze was mentioned in Pliny's Natural History. In 1619  Bernini sculpted the mattress on which the ancient marble of Hermaphrodite lies. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death.. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death.. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Statue of Puzur-Ishtar Shakkanakku  (military governor or prince c. 2050 BC)) of Mari appointed by the Akkad Kings. According to the inscription below the right hand above the hem of the garment , the sculpture was originally made as a votive gift. The name Puzar-Eshtar, Prince of Mari, is mentioned twice, but the figures headgear is the horned cap of a deity, the statue cannot depict the mortal prince. The clasped hands of the figure and the text make it certain that the statue once belonged to the inventory of a temple, but where the temple stood is not known, despite the mention of Mari in the title of the prince. Like many other monuments, the statue was looted from its original site in Mari and the body was was discovered in the museum of Nebuchadrezzar’s palace at Babylon (604-562 BC). This oversized statue is one of the few large preserved sculptures of the Near East. The head was broken from the body in antiquity and both pieces survived separately. The excavated body was taken to the Istanbul Museum and an exchange of casts with the Pergamon Mus The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the head from the Pergamon Museum meant that the statue could be reassembled. The Vorderasiatisches Museum, part of the Pergamon Museum, Berlin
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue in the nude hero style of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from the reign of Nero, 54-68 AD. This portrait can be dated to the reign of Nero due to the facial features and hair style, with short locks and long fringe over the forehead. The young man is wearing a tunic, stopped with a small fibula (clasp) on the left shoulder. Inv 281, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from the reign of Nero, 54-68 AD. This portrait can be dated to the reign of Nero due to the facial features and hair style, with short locks and long fringe over the forehead. The young man is wearing a tunic, stopped with a small fibula (clasp) on the left shoulder. Inv 281, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from the reign of Nero, 54-68 AD. This portrait can be dated to the reign of Nero due to the facial features and hair style, with short locks and long fringe over the forehead. The young man is wearing a tunic, stopped with a small fibula (clasp) on the left shoulder. Inv 281, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy

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