• Shrine to the Virgin Mary in The Stone Gate entrance Kamenita Vrata) to Zagreb's Gornji Grad, Croatia
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Wheat field ready to harvest
  • Entrance to Bishop's Palace gardens - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • Stock photos of  the city wall and roof to views of Dubrovnik Croatia
  • Stock photos of  City wall and roof to views of Dubrovnik Croatia
  • Stock photos of  City wall and roof to views of Dubrovnik Croatia
  • Whole coriander Seeds - stock photos
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original interior of an isle of Lewis White house which replaced the Black hosuses on the Island, Scotland
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original interior of the kitchen area with paet fire burning in The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Animal quarters in the original interior of The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Hen coupe in the store room  of The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Original bedroom interior with original box-beds of The Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image peat pile oustide the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Picture & image of the exterior with stone walls and thatched roof of The historic Blackhouse, 24 Arnol, Bragar, Isle of Lewis, Scotland.
  • Sussex Plum Tomaotes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • yellow tomatoes amongst other mixed tomatoes
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Fresh picked plum tomatoes
  • Fresh Sussex plum tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Vittoris vine tomatoes
  • Mixed fresh yellow & red Pomodorino Tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Jubilee vine tomatoes
  • Mixed beefsteak, cheery, plum & tom tom vive tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Fresh picked plum tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Mixed beefsteak, cheery, plum & tom tom vive tomatoes
  • mixed yellow & red vine tomatoes
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Mixed tomatoes photos, pictures & images
  • Selection of fresh red and yellow tomatoes and plum tomatoes food photography
  • Selection of fresh red and yellow tomatoes and plum tomatoes food photography
  • Cheddar cheese and fresh tomatoes food photos.
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • - ( Gy?r )  Gyor Hungary
  • Stock photos of roof top views and courtyards - Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Stock photos of roof top views and courtyards - Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Stock photos of Panoramic roof top views of Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Stock photos of roof top views and courtyards - Dubrovnik - Croatia
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh Tom Tom tomatoes
  • Fresh  plum Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Fresh Tomatoes
  • Organic beef burger with tomato relish and salad in a bun photo. Funky Stock Photos
  • beef burger with sweetcorn relish and salad in a bun photos. Funky Stock Photos
  • beef burger with sweetcorn relish and salad in a bun photos. Funky Stock Photos
  • Red and Yellow Tomatoes on the vine
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • Volavents filled with salmon & dill cream and olive tapenade on a gold plate with gold presents
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • Photo of a late Helladic jug decorated with serpentine bands showing Cycladic and Minoan influences.   Mycenae Shaft Grave V, Greece. 16th to early 15th century BC,  cat no: 950,  National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Photo of a late Helladic jug decorated with serpentine bands showing Cycladic and Minoan influences.   Mycenae Shaft Grave V, Greece. 16th to early 15th century BC,  cat no: 950,  National Archaeological Museum, Athens.
  • Art photo of Mushrooms by photographer Paul E Williams. Available to buy online as wall art prints.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • The Broch of Gurness is a rare example of a well preserved iron age Broch village. Dating from 500 to 200BC the central round tower probably reached 10 meters (30ft). This was surrounded by thatched roofed houses. The settlement was surrounded by walls and two deep ditches. Gurness was probably the most important settlement on Orkney 2000 years ago.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting two Peacocks - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
<br />
The patterns of peacock tails contain round decorations. These were seen to be the symbolic eyes of omnipotence and often ascribed to the Archangel Michael. The peacock’s feather is sometimes associated with St. Barbara Also, The peacock, (due to an ancient myth that Peacock flesh did not decay), is seen as a symbol of immortality.<br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • The Church of San Vigilio in Pinzolo and its fresco paintings “Dance of Death” painted by Simone Baschenis of Averaria in1539, Pinzolo, Trentino, Italy.<br />
<br />
The Mural opens on its left with a skeleton on the throne, bearing a sceptre and the crown and playing a bagpipe. These skeletons are playing the music which is the backdrop to “Dance of Death” ( Danza macabra ) and suggests that they are playing with our fate on earth. <br />
<br />
The mural continues for another 21 meters with a long procession with 40 figures. To the right of the skeletons playing music is a depiction of the crucification. Christ is depicted on the cross with an arrow in him that has been fired by a skeleton with a bow. This suggests that because Christ was a man he suffered the fate of death as we all will. After Christ is a Pope also pierced by a spear, as are all the human figures in the mural. Next to the pope is a cardinal, a cleric and a monk all of whom have succumbed to the arrows of the skeletons. This tableau is a reminder to the hierarchy of the church that even they are not immune from death. The procession continues with a depiction of a king then nobility followed by knights and soldiers and a beggar man with no legs. Between each figure are skeletons holding bows and arrows, banners with writings on them or a shovel to dig a grave. After the beggar mad there are figures of women ending with a small skeleton and a cherub. To the far right a skeleton on a horse is riding into the procession holding a bow and arrow ready to far. To procession ends with the Angel Gabriel and the devil discussing the fates of the those in the procession as to whether they go to Heaven or to Purgatory and Hell.
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD.Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman mosaics - Metiochus and Parthenope Mosaic.  2nd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.<br />
<br />
Metiochus and Parthenope, famous with their legendary love for eat: torn apart and then unified after years, they seem to represent the According to the myth, Parthenope is the sister of Polycrat e Ki taken an oath of virginity upon the Heraion which symbolizes the Metiochus is invited to the royal court and meets Parthenope Burin fails in love with Metiochus but in order to keep the oath she has taken, she and chooses to go exile. In this mosaic, we see the two figures sfttngsitting upon an In compliance with the story, the face of Metiochus is directed towards Part e whom he fell in love and the eyes of Parthenope stares at an indeterminate area due to the love she feels yet sees impossible. The mosaic is surrounded by triangular, double mesh ttke, and pyramidal borders. The piece was discovered during the rescue excavation conducted. in 1993. When exposed, it was understood that the main figures used to be at the middle of the mosaic were stolen the tomb-robbers. <br />
<br />
The mosaic was brought to Gaziantep Museum with a question mark labeled on it saying "Who knows where? In which country?" and began to be displayed temporarily after restoration. From the photographs sent by the Canadian Archaeologist Sheila Campbell, it was found out that the stolen parts were in the Merin collection in Houston USA and with the initiatives of the Ministry of Culture, the missing parts were brought In 2000 and the mosaic was put on display following the restoration. Those two eternal lovers, who were torn apart by traffickers of historical artefacts and kidnapped separately, have been unified after years.
  • Roman mosaics - Metiochus and Parthenope Mosaic.  2nd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.  Against a white background.<br />
<br />
Metiochus and Parthenope, famous with their legendary love for eat: torn apart and then unified after years, they seem to represent the According to the myth, Parthenope is the sister of Polycrat e Ki taken an oath of virginity upon the Heraion which symbolizes the Metiochus is invited to the royal court and meets Parthenope Burin fails in love with Metiochus but in order to keep the oath she has taken, she and chooses to go exile. In this mosaic, we see the two figures sfttngsitting upon an In compliance with the story, the face of Metiochus is directed towards Part e whom he fell in love and the eyes of Parthenope stares at an indeterminate area due to the love she feels yet sees impossible. The mosaic is surrounded by triangular, double mesh ttke, and pyramidal borders. The piece was discovered during the rescue excavation conducted. in 1993. When exposed, it was understood that the main figures used to be at the middle of the mosaic were stolen the tomb-robbers. <br />
<br />
The mosaic was brought to Gaziantep Museum with a question mark labeled on it saying "Who knows where? In which country?" and began to be displayed temporarily after restoration. From the photographs sent by the Canadian Archaeologist Sheila Campbell, it was found out that the stolen parts were in the Merin collection in Houston USA and with the initiatives of the Ministry of Culture, the missing parts were brought In 2000 and the mosaic was put on display following the restoration. Those two eternal lovers, who were torn apart by traffickers of historical artefacts and kidnapped separately, have been unified after years.
  • Roman mosaics - Metiochus and Parthenope Mosaic.  2nd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.   Against a black background.<br />
<br />
Metiochus and Parthenope, famous with their legendary love for eat: torn apart and then unified after years, they seem to represent the According to the myth, Parthenope is the sister of Polycrat e Ki taken an oath of virginity upon the Heraion which symbolizes the Metiochus is invited to the royal court and meets Parthenope Burin fails in love with Metiochus but in order to keep the oath she has taken, she and chooses to go exile. In this mosaic, we see the two figures sfttngsitting upon an In compliance with the story, the face of Metiochus is directed towards Part e whom he fell in love and the eyes of Parthenope stares at an indeterminate area due to the love she feels yet sees impossible. The mosaic is surrounded by triangular, double mesh ttke, and pyramidal borders. The piece was discovered during the rescue excavation conducted. in 1993. When exposed, it was understood that the main figures used to be at the middle of the mosaic were stolen the tomb-robbers. <br />
<br />
The mosaic was brought to Gaziantep Museum with a question mark labeled on it saying "Who knows where? In which country?" and began to be displayed temporarily after restoration. From the photographs sent by the Canadian Archaeologist Sheila Campbell, it was found out that the stolen parts were in the Merin collection in Houston USA and with the initiatives of the Ministry of Culture, the missing parts were brought In 2000 and the mosaic was put on display following the restoration. Those two eternal lovers, who were torn apart by traffickers of historical artefacts and kidnapped separately, have been unified after years.
  • Roman mosaics - Metiochus and Parthenope Mosaic.  2nd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.   Against an art background.<br />
<br />
Metiochus and Parthenope, famous with their legendary love for eat: torn apart and then unified after years, they seem to represent the According to the myth, Parthenope is the sister of Polycrat e Ki taken an oath of virginity upon the Heraion which symbolizes the Metiochus is invited to the royal court and meets Parthenope Burin fails in love with Metiochus but in order to keep the oath she has taken, she and chooses to go exile. In this mosaic, we see the two figures sfttngsitting upon an In compliance with the story, the face of Metiochus is directed towards Part e whom he fell in love and the eyes of Parthenope stares at an indeterminate area due to the love she feels yet sees impossible. The mosaic is surrounded by triangular, double mesh ttke, and pyramidal borders. The piece was discovered during the rescue excavation conducted. in 1993. When exposed, it was understood that the main figures used to be at the middle of the mosaic were stolen the tomb-robbers. <br />
<br />
The mosaic was brought to Gaziantep Museum with a question mark labeled on it saying "Who knows where? In which country?" and began to be displayed temporarily after restoration. From the photographs sent by the Canadian Archaeologist Sheila Campbell, it was found out that the stolen parts were in the Merin collection in Houston USA and with the initiatives of the Ministry of Culture, the missing parts were brought In 2000 and the mosaic was put on display following the restoration. Those two eternal lovers, who were torn apart by traffickers of historical artefacts and kidnapped separately, have been unified after years.
  • Roman mosaics - Metiochus and Parthenope Mosaic.  2nd century AD . Zeugma Mosaic Museum, Gaziantep, Turkey.  Against a grey background.<br />
<br />
Metiochus and Parthenope, famous with their legendary love for eat: torn apart and then unified after years, they seem to represent the According to the myth, Parthenope is the sister of Polycrat e Ki taken an oath of virginity upon the Heraion which symbolizes the Metiochus is invited to the royal court and meets Parthenope Burin fails in love with Metiochus but in order to keep the oath she has taken, she and chooses to go exile. In this mosaic, we see the two figures sfttngsitting upon an In compliance with the story, the face of Metiochus is directed towards Part e whom he fell in love and the eyes of Parthenope stares at an indeterminate area due to the love she feels yet sees impossible. The mosaic is surrounded by triangular, double mesh ttke, and pyramidal borders. The piece was discovered during the rescue excavation conducted. in 1993. When exposed, it was understood that the main figures used to be at the middle of the mosaic were stolen the tomb-robbers. <br />
<br />
The mosaic was brought to Gaziantep Museum with a question mark labeled on it saying "Who knows where? In which country?" and began to be displayed temporarily after restoration. From the photographs sent by the Canadian Archaeologist Sheila Campbell, it was found out that the stolen parts were in the Merin collection in Houston USA and with the initiatives of the Ministry of Culture, the missing parts were brought In 2000 and the mosaic was put on display following the restoration. Those two eternal lovers, who were torn apart by traffickers of historical artefacts and kidnapped separately, have been unified after years.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century v Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Abraham about to offer his son Isaac as a sacrifice<br />
  - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Adam & Eve with a serpent wrapped around a tree between them - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a bird - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting a stag - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
The stag is a traditional Christian symbol for Christ, Who tramples and destroys the Devil. In the Medieval bestiaries the stag as an enemy of snakes. It was believed that stags was believed to chase snakes into their holes or rock crevices, driving them out by flooding the hole with the breath or water from its mouth, and eating them. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century  Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional attitudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. v
  • Detail of a 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additio-nal details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.   Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia. Against a grey art background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a black background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a white background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey background.
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine  Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia
  • 6th-7th Century Eastern Roman Byzantine Christian Terracotta tiles depicting Christ changing Water into wine - Produced in Byzacena -  present day Tunisia. <br />
<br />
These early Christian terracotta tiles were mass produced thanks to moulds. Their quadrangular, square or rectangular shape as well as the standardised sizes in use in the different regions were determined by their architectonic function and were designed to facilitate their assembly according to various combinations to decorate large flat surfaces of walls or ceilings. <br />
<br />
Byzacena stood out for its use of biblical and hagiographic themes and a richer variety of animals, birds and roses. Some deer and lions were obviously inspired from Zeugitana prototypes attesting to the pre-existence of this province's production with respect to that of Byzacena. The rules governing this art are similar to those that applied to late Roman and Christian art with, in the case of Byzacena, an obvious popular connotation. Its distinguishing features are flatness, a predilection for symmetrical compositions, frontal and lateral representations, the absence of tridimensional atti-tudes and the naivety of some details (large eyes, pointed chins). Mass production enabled this type of decoration to be widely used at little cost and it played a role as ideograms and for teaching catechism through pictures. Painting, now often faded, enhanced motifs in relief or enriched them with additional details to break their repetitive monotony.<br />
<br />
The Bardo National Museum Tunis, Tunisia.  Against a grey art background.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • The Kilamuwa Stela a stele of King Kilamuwa, from the Kingdom of Sam'al. The stele is a 16-line text in Phoenician. King Kilamuwa is shown standing on the upper left and addressing four Canaanite god-insignias with his right arm and finger. His left hand is draped at his left side holding a wilted lotus flower, a symbol of a king's death. He is dressed in king's regalia with hat, and his figure stands at the beginning of the first nine lines of the text.. Basalt  9th-century BC. Vorderasiatisches Museum, Pergamon Museum, Berlin.  The text reads "I am Kilamuwa, the son of King Haya'. King Gabar reigned over Ya'diya-(Sam'al) but achieved nothing.<br />
Then came Bamah, and he achieved nothing.<br />
My own father, Haya', did nothing with his reign.<br />
My brother, Sha'il, also did nothing.<br />
It was I, Kilamuwa...who managed to do what none of my ancestors had.<br />
My father's kingdom was beset by powerful, predatory kings, all holding out their hands, demanding to be fed.<br />
But I raged amongst them like a fire, burning their beards and consuming their outstretched hands.<br />
Only the Danunian kings overmastered me; I had to call on the King of Assyria to assist me...<br />
I, Kilamuwa, the son of Haya', ascended my father's throne.<br />
Under their previous kings, the [people] had howled like dogs.<br />
But I was a father, a mother and a brother to them.<br />
I gave gold, silver and cattle to men who had never so much as seen the face of a sheep before.<br />
Those who had never even seen linen all their lives I clothed in byssus-cloth from head to foot.<br />
I took the [people] by the hand and in their souls they looked to me just as the orphan looks to his mother."<br />
"Whoever of my sons comes after me and interferes with this inscription, may he be dishonoured among the people...<br />
And if anyone should damage this inscription,<br />
Let Gabar's god Ba'al-Samad destroy his head,<br />
And let Bamah's god Ba'al Hamon destroy his head..."<br />
Together with Reχub-ʾEl, the Lord of the Palace
  • Aphrodite, Roman Venus, of Vienne Goddess of Love. This 1st to 2nd century Roman marble copy of a lost Greek original attributed to attibuee Doidalsas Bithynia around 250BC, is of the crouching Venus style. Excavated from the Palace of Mirrors in Saint Romain en Gal (Isere France). The Crouching Venus is a Hellenistic model of Venus surprised at her bath. Venus crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. Louvre Museum, Inv No MNB 1292 ( Usual No Ma 2240)
  • Aphrodite, Roman Venus, of Vienne Goddess of Love. This 1st to 2nd century Roman marble copy of a lost Greek original attributed to attibuee Doidalsas Bithynia around 250BC, is of the crouching Venus style. Excavated from the Palace of Mirrors in Saint Romain en Gal (Isere France). The Crouching Venus is a Hellenistic model of Venus surprised at her bath. Venus crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. Louvre Museum, Inv No MNB 1292 ( Usual No Ma 2240)
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 372
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death.. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death.. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Aphrodite, Roman Venus, of Vienne Goddess of Love. This 1st to 2nd century Roman marble copy of a lost Greek original attributed to attibuee Doidalsas Bithynia around 250BC, is of the crouching Venus style. Excavated from the Palace of Mirrors in Saint Romain en Gal (Isere France). The Crouching Venus is a Hellenistic model of Venus surprised at her bath. Venus crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. Louvre Museum, Inv No MNB 1292 ( Usual No Ma 2240)
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.
  • Aphrodite of Fréjus in the style known as "Venus Genetrix". A 1.64m high Roman statue, dating from the end of the 1st century BC to the start of the 1st century AD, in Parian marble, was discovered at Fréjus (Forum Julii) in 1650. It is considered as the best Roman copy of the lost Greek work. Louvre Museum, Paris<br />
<br />
The Venus Genetrix style of statue depicts Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) as Genetrix ( Latin for Mother). This sculptural type was adopted by the Julia-Claudian dynasty after Julius Caesar claimed that he was defended from Venus herself.  The original lost Greek statue is attributed to Greek sculpture Callimachus who created a Bronze Aphrodite in 420-410. According to Pliny's Natural History showing her dressed in a light but clinging chiton or peplos, which was lowered on the left shoulder to reveal her left breast and hung down in a sheer face and decoratively carved so as not to hide the outlines of the woman's body. Venus was depicted holding the apple won in the Judgement of Paris in her left hand, whilst her right hand moved to cover her head. From the lost bronze original are derived all surviving copies. The composition was frontal, the body's form monumental, and in the surviving Roman replicas its proportions are close to the Polyclitean, an ancient Greek sculptor in bronze of the fifth century BC.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century  Roman Marble Statue from Marmol. Cordoba Archaeological Museum, Spain.
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Silenus (Faune to the Romans) and The Child ( Dionysus, Bacchus to the Romans). A 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble discovered in the gardens of the Salluste in Rome, Italy. Silenus was ordered by Zeus to take his illegitimate son son Dionysus away from the wrath of Hera to the nymphs. This staue is a Roman copy of a lost bronze Greek original by the 4th century BC Greek sculptor  Lysippos.  From the Borghese collection, Inv MR 346   (or Ma 922), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Silenus (Faune to the Romans) and The Child ( Dionysus, Bacchus to the Romans). A 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble discovered in the gardens of the Salluste in Rome, Italy. Silenus was ordered by Zeus to take his illegitimate son son Dionysus away from the wrath of Hera to the nymphs. This staue is a Roman copy of a lost bronze Greek original by the 4th century BC Greek sculptor  Lysippos.  From the Borghese collection, Inv MR 346   (or Ma 922), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Silenus (Faune to the Romans) and The Child ( Dionysus, Bacchus to the Romans). A 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble discovered in the gardens of the Salluste in Rome, Italy. Silenus was ordered by Zeus to take his illegitimate son son Dionysus away from the wrath of Hera to the nymphs. This staue is a Roman copy of a lost bronze Greek original by the 4th century BC Greek sculptor  Lysippos.  From the Borghese collection, Inv MR 346   (or Ma 922), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Silenus (Faune to the Romans) and The Child ( Dionysus, Bacchus to the Romans). A 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble discovered in the gardens of the Salluste in Rome, Italy. Silenus was ordered by Zeus to take his illegitimate son son Dionysus away from the wrath of Hera to the nymphs. This staue is a Roman copy of a lost bronze Greek original by the 4th century BC Greek sculptor  Lysippos.  From the Borghese collection, Inv MR 346   (or Ma 922), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 372
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 372
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 372
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right as if looking at somebody and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts.
  • Aphrodite, Roman Venus, of Vienne Goddess of Love. This 1st to 2nd century Roman marble copy of a lost Greek original attributed to attibuee Doidalsas Bithynia around 250BC, is of the crouching Venus style. Excavated from the Palace of Mirrors in Saint Romain en Gal (Isere France). The Crouching Venus is a Hellenistic model of Venus surprised at her bath. Venus crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. Louvre Museum, Inv No MNB 1292 ( Usual No Ma 2240)
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Venus de Milo ( Aphrodite of Milos ) A 203 cm (6 ft 8 in)  marble statue from the Greek Island of Milos sculpted in 130 and 100 BC thought to be the work of Alexandros of Antioch;. Louvre Museum, Paris. <br />
The Aphrodite of Milos was discovered on 8 April 1820 by a peasant named Yorgos Kentrotas, inside a buried niche within the ancient city ruins of Milos, the current village of Tripiti, on the island of Milos  in the Aegean, which was then a part of the Ottoman Empire. The statue was purchase by the French ambassador to Turkey and it was shipped to France. Legend has it that the statues arms were broken off during transport but this story however proved to be a fabrication – Voutier's drawings of the statue when it was first discovered show that its arms were already missing.<br />
<br />
In 1815, France had returned the Medici Venus,  to the Italians after it had been looted from Italy by Napoleon Bonaparte. The Medici Venus, regarded as one of the finest Classical sculptures in existence, caused the French to promote the Venus de Milo as a greater treasure than that which they recently had lost. The de Milo statue was praised dutifully by many artists and critics as the epitome of graceful female beauty. However, Pierre-Auguste Renoir was among its detractors, labeling it a "big gendarme".
  • Crouching Aphrodite (Venus). 2nd Century Imperial Roman Marble Statue from Italy. Louvre Museum, Paris. Cat No MR 371 
<br />
This sculpture  is a variation on the Classic Hellanistic 3rd to Ist century BC style of Aphrodite crouching to bathe. Aphrodite crouches with her right knee close to the ground, turns her head to the right and, in most versions, reaches her right arm over to her left shoulder to cover her breasts. The sculpture here changes the pattern by raising the right arm to the neck, rather than making her arm cross her chest, this flattens the composition.

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