• Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Roman Black and White Geometric mosaic decorations  from  a Villa of Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a grey background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • Third century AD Roman Opus Sectile mosaic depicting a head from Santa Prisca, a titular church, on the Aventine Hill, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a white background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against a black background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy. Against an art background.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic depicting nymphs from the basilica de Giunio Basso .  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • 4th Century AD Roman Opus Sectile Mosaic of a chariot & 4 horses from the basilica de Giunio Basso.  Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Geometric  Swastica mosaic decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman Geometric  Swastica mosaic decorations of the Triclinium C, Villa Farnesia, Rome. Museo Nazionale Romano ( National Roman Museum), Rome, Italy.
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with roses and flowers, from the Pietra Papa area near the Flavian Gate, Rome. 125-150 BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic  from the Villa of Castel di Guido, Rome. 1st century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic  from the Villa of Castel di Guido, Rome. 1st century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with roses and flowers, from the Pietra Papa area near the Flavian Gate, Rome. 125-150 BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic  from the Villa of Castel di Guido, Rome. 1st century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with roses and flowers, from the Pietra Papa area near the Flavian Gate, Rome. 125-150 BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with roses and flowers, from the Pietra Papa area near the Flavian Gate, Rome. 125-150 BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Geometric Roman floor mosaic. From the  Grotte Celoni area of the via Casilina, Rome. End of 1st and beginning of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic  from the Villa of Castel di Guido, Rome. 1st century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with roses and flowers, from the Pietra Papa area near the Flavian Gate, Rome. 125-150 BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with black and white diamonds shapes. From the Roman villa near Botte, Rome. 1st century BC . National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with swastikas. From the Roman villa near Botte, Rome. 1st century BC . National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman  floor mosaic . National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the boats on the Nile. From the Cellae vinariae Nova and Arruntiana by the Tiber in Lungara, Rome. Start of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Black and white floor mosaic showing the marine or sea thiasos depicting Poseidon and his retinue.. From the area between the Milvian Bridge and  l'Acqua Acetosa in the locality Tor di Quinto. End of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic of a tragic actors mask from the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. End of 1st and beginning of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Geometric Roman floor mosaic. From the  Grotte Celoni area of the via Casilina, Rome. End of 1st and beginning of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic with cat and ducks. From the Roman villa on Via Ardeatina, next to Cecchignola, Rome. This Roman mosaic floor panel represents a cat trying to catch a bird in flight and two ducks, one of which is holding a lotus flower in its beak. The style is similar to Hellenistic paintings. The mosaic was found in the triclinium of a Roman villa dating from the first quarter of the 1st century AD and features a central panel using a style known as “opus Vermiculatum” or small tiles to give a greater detail to the mosaic. inv 124137 National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Floor mosaic with satyr heads and pan.  From a Roman villa which probably belonged to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Genazzano. Circo 138-192 AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Floor mosaic with satyr heads and pan.  From a Roman villa which probably belonged to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Genazzano. Circo 138-192 AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Floor mosaic with satyr heads and pan.  From a Roman villa which probably belonged to Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. Genazzano. Circo 138-192 AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Floor mosaic with Dionysus and satyrs at the center within laurel wreath. From the villa of Farnese at S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome. 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman  floor mosaic depicting pastral scenes and scenes from mythology  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. end of 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Charioteers and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Green Faction Charioteer  and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Green Faction Charioteer and his horse from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Red Faction Charioteer and his horse from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Red Faction Charioteer and his horse from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Green Faction Charioteer and his horse from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Blue Faction Charioteer and his horse from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting horsemen and their horses from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic depicting Blue Faction Charioteer and his horse from the Circus  from  a room of a villa  in the locality Baccano near the Via Cassia, Rome. Beginning of the 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with diminutional cube designs, from a Roman villa near Casale de S.Basilio near Via Nomentana, Rome. 1st century BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with diminutional cube designs, from a Roman villa near Casale de S.Basilio near Via Nomentana, Rome. 1st century BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with diminutional cube designs, from a Roman villa near Casale de S.Basilio near Via Nomentana, Rome. 1st century BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with diminutional cube designs, from a Roman villa near Casale de S.Basilio near Via Nomentana, Rome. 1st century BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman geometric floor mosaic with diminutional cube designs, from a Roman villa near Casale de S.Basilio near Via Nomentana, Rome. 1st century BC. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic with birds and floral decorations.  From via Imperale, now Columbus, near the Porta Ardeatina, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic from the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. End of 1st and beginning of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic of a bust of Dionysus from the Via Flaminia, Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic from the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. End of 1st and beginning of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic  depicting the struggle between Dionysus and the Indians. From the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. 4th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic from the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. End of 1st and beginning of 2nd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic  depicting the struggle between Dionysus and the Indians. From the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. 4th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic  depicting the struggle between Dionysus and the Indians. From the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. 4th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic  depicting the struggle between Dionysus and the Indians. From the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. 4th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman floor mosaic  depicting the struggle between Dionysus and the Indians. From the  Villa de Ruffinella, Tusculum. 4th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman  geometric floor mosaic  with a bust at its centre. From the Forte Prenestino area of Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman  geometric floor mosaic  with a bust at its centre. From the Forte Prenestino area of Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic floor panes depicting the  seasons. From Capannelle area of the Via Appia Nova, Rome. 4th to 5th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman  geometric floor mosaic  with a bust at its centre. From the Forte Prenestino area of Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman  geometric floor mosaic  with a bust at its centre. From the Forte Prenestino area of Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman  geometric floor mosaic  with a bust at its centre. From the Forte Prenestino area of Rome. 3rd century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mosaic floor panes depicting the  seasons. From Capannelle area of the Via Appia Nova, Rome. 4th to 5th century AD. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of a young Satyr from the Hadranic period circa 117-138 AD excavated from an area near the via XX Settembre and Via Firenza, Rome, Italy. A young Satyr, wearing a panther’s skin tied on the right shoulder, plays the tibia oblique (flute) whist reclining next to a tree trunk. The statue is based on a Greek prototype from the school of Greek sculptor Praxiteles created around 300 BC.  Inv 551, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an African Acrobat from early Imperial period excavated from the Villa Patrizi, via Nomentana, Rome, Italy. A young African performs an acrobatic trick very similar to those performed by tribal members from an area of the Nile, the Tentyitae (described by Pliny in Naturalis Historia), where skilled divers dive into the water from the backs of crocodiles. The work is based on a hellenistic original and here has beed adapted for the Roman period as a fountain decoration. The hole in the acrobats mouth is a water spout.  Inv 40009, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an African Acrobat from early Imperial period excavated from the Villa Patrizi, via Nomentana, Rome, Italy. A young African performs an acrobatic trick very similar to those performed by tribal members from an area of the Nile, the Tentyitae (described by Pliny in Naturalis Historia), where skilled divers dive into the water from the backs of crocodiles. The work is based on a hellenistic original and here has beed adapted for the Roman period as a fountain decoration. The hole in the acrobats mouth is a water spout.  Inv 40009, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Apollo. known as the Chigi Apollo,  mid 2nd cent. AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. As suggested by the quiver strap slung across the body, the god held a bow and arrow , in a pose of absorbed meditation. Wrapped around the tree trunk which acts as a support are gods attributes: the laurel and the snake. This classical statue is a reworking of an original Greek statue of the 4th cent. BC.  Inv 75675, The National Roman Museum, Rome, ItalyThe National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Apollo. known as the Chigi Apollo,  mid 2nd cent. AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. As suggested by the quiver strap slung across the body, the god held a bow and arrow , in a pose of absorbed meditation. Wrapped around the tree trunk which acts as a support are gods attributes: the laurel and the snake. This classical statue is a reworking of an original Greek statue of the 4th cent. BC.  Inv 75675, The National Roman Museum, Rome, ItalyThe National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Statue of an Amazon on horseback and a Barbarian, Circa mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the  Imperial villa near Faro, Italy. An Amazon perched on a rearing horse clashes with a barbarian who attempts to deal a final blow before dying. The work is based on a Hellenistic original from the Pergamon school from the second half of the 2nd cent. B.C, The group was displayed in the Imperial villa  with another of the same theme now in the Borghese collection. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue in the nude hero style of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Sabina, circa 135 AD excavated from the via Appia, Rome. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young charioteer from the age of Domitian, 81-96AD. This statue of a young charioteer, with Oriental eastern Mediterranean features, is wearing a tunic stopped on the right shoulder by a flattened circular fibula (clasp). The hairstyle, with its ’S’ shaped curls, was made artificially with an iron (calamistrum). This style was inspired by official portrayts of a young Domitian, who emulated Neronian style during the last years of his reign. The bust was rounded to be inserted onto a modern pillar. . Inv 276, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman bust of Alexander the Great, 2nd cent B.C bronze with gold leaf. The head is from a smaller than life size statue. The elongated curls, the parted locks and the diadem that fastens the hair at the back, are clear indications that the head is a portrait of the Macedonian King Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.). Inv 66177, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Gordian III made between 238 and 244 AD and excavated from Ostia. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243AD). In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Gordian III made between 238 and 244 AD and excavated from Ostia. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243AD). In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Alexander Severus made between 222 and 235 AD and excavated from Ostia. Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. As emperor, Alexander's peace time reign was prosperous. However militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. He managed to check the threat of the Sassanids, but when campaigning against Germanic tribes of Germania, Alexander attempted to bring peace by engaging in diplomacy and bribery. This alienated many in the legions and led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Septimius Severus made between 196 and 197 AD and excavated from Ostia. Severus became Roman emperor in 193 AD After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta who fought constantly until Caracalla had Geta murdered. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus better known as Caracalla, made between 210 and 213 AD and excavated from the via Cassia, Rome. The realism of this  sculpture of Caracalla captures cruelty of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Roman Empire. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana  granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217, by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard who was possibly resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus better known as Caracalla, made between 210 and 213 AD and excavated from the via Cassia, Rome. The realism of this  sculpture of Caracalla captures cruelty of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Roman Empire. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana  granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217, by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard who was possibly resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus better known as Caracalla, made between 210 and 213 AD and excavated from the via Cassia, Rome. The realism of this  sculpture of Caracalla captures cruelty of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Roman Empire. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana  granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217, by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard who was possibly resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Nerva, circa  96 to 98 AD excavated from Tivoli. Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98 AD. On 18 September 96 AD Domitian was assassinated and Nerva became Emperor  at the age of sixty-five after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from the ancient market, Rome. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from Albano Laziale. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from Albano Laziale. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an African Acrobat from early Imperial period excavated from the Villa Patrizi, via Nomentana, Rome, Italy. A young African performs an acrobatic trick very similar to those performed by tribal members from an area of the Nile, the Tentyitae (described by Pliny in Naturalis Historia), where skilled divers dive into the water from the backs of crocodiles. The work is based on a hellenistic original and here has beed adapted for the Roman period as a fountain decoration. The hole in the acrobats mouth is a water spout.  Inv 40009, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman bust of a female deity, circa 117-138 AD from the Villa Adriana (Hadrian), Tivoli, Italy. The head, made separately for insertion onto a larger than life size body, is that of a female deity; type is known from other copies from a Greek original, probably from Attic circa 470-460 B.C. The bust was found in Hadrian’s villa and is therefore dated to 117-138 AD. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue in the nude hero style of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue in the nude hero style of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from the reign of Nero, 54-68 AD. This portrait can be dated to the reign of Nero due to the facial features and hair style, with short locks and long fringe over the forehead. The young man is wearing a tunic, stopped with a small fibula (clasp) on the left shoulder. Inv 281, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from the reign of Nero, 54-68 AD. This portrait can be dated to the reign of Nero due to the facial features and hair style, with short locks and long fringe over the forehead. The young man is wearing a tunic, stopped with a small fibula (clasp) on the left shoulder. Inv 281, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young charioteer from the age of Domitian, 81-96AD. This statue of a young charioteer, with Oriental eastern Mediterranean features, is wearing a tunic stopped on the right shoulder by a flattened circular fibula (clasp). The hairstyle, with its ’S’ shaped curls, was made artificially with an iron (calamistrum). This style was inspired by official portrayts of a young Domitian, who emulated Neronian style during the last years of his reign. The bust was rounded to be inserted onto a modern pillar. . Inv 276, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust from circa 30 BC excavated from the Valle Giardino, Nemi, Rome. The appearance of an adult man with an energetic, dominating expression, is artistically and crisply represented in this portrait. The treatment of the eyebrows and hair suggest that this statue is the copy of a braze original. The head is a fusion of the realistic style from the period of Caesar and the classic works of the Augustan age . Inv 66177, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust from circa 30 BC excavated from the Valle Giardino, Nemi, Rome. The appearance of an adult man with an energetic, dominating expression, is artistically and crisply represented in this portrait. The treatment of the eyebrows and hair suggest that this statue is the copy of a braze original. The head is a fusion of the realistic style from the period of Caesar and the classic works of the Augustan age . Inv 66177, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Gordian III made between 238 and 244 AD and excavated from Ostia. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243AD). In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Alexander Severus made between 222 and 235 AD and excavated from Ostia. Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. As emperor, Alexander's peace time reign was prosperous. However militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. He managed to check the threat of the Sassanids, but when campaigning against Germanic tribes of Germania, Alexander attempted to bring peace by engaging in diplomacy and bribery. This alienated many in the legions and led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Septimius Severus made between 196 and 197 AD and excavated from Ostia. Severus became Roman emperor in 193 AD After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta who fought constantly until Caracalla had Geta murdered. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture head of Hercules, mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Vale Giardino, Nemi. The head was probably made separately for the insertion onto a statue, probably depicting the gold seated. The work is a copy of a Greek original of the late Hellenistic period, inspired by a statue by the Greek sculptor Lysippos of Sicyon known as the ‘Herakles Epitapezios’ sculpted around 300 BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Bust of Antinous - late Hadrianic period circa 130-138AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on the Christian sarcophagus side od Marcus Claudianus depicting scenes from  the new testament , circa 330 - 335 AD from the via della Lungara near S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on the Christian sarcophagus side od Marcus Claudianus depicting scenes from  the new testament , circa 330 - 335 AD from the via della Lungara near S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on the Christian sarcophagus side od Marcus Claudianus depicting scenes from  the new testament , circa 330 - 335 AD from the via della Lungara near S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on the Christian sarcophagus side od Marcus Claudianus depicting scenes from  the new testament , circa 330 - 335 AD from the via della Lungara near S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on the Christian sarcophagus side od Marcus Claudianus depicting scenes from  the new testament , circa 330 - 335 AD from the via della Lungara near S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side depiction the Muses, circa 280 - 290 AD from the Villa Celimontana. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side depiction the Muses, circa 280 - 290 AD from the Villa Celimontana. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side depiction the Muses, circa 280 - 290 AD from the Villa Celimontana. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side depiction the Muses, circa 280 - 290 AD from the Villa Celimontana. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side depiction the Muses, circa 280 - 290 AD from the Villa Celimontana. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panel of Medusa from a Roman ship, the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The head of the medusa is an example of refined craftsmanship. The detail of the hair, the scales, the snakes and the nostrils were made using hand held tools . the work is at its most frightening when viewed from a low anyle suggesting that it was designed to be places high up on the ship .  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panel of Medusa from a Roman ship, the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The head of the medusa is an example of refined craftsmanship. The detail of the hair, the scales, the snakes and the nostrils were made using hand held tools . the work is at its most frightening when viewed from a low anyle suggesting that it was designed to be places high up on the ship .  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panel of Medusa from a Roman ship, the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The head of the medusa is an example of refined craftsmanship. The detail of the hair, the scales, the snakes and the nostrils were made using hand held tools . the work is at its most frightening when viewed from a low anyle suggesting that it was designed to be places high up on the ship .  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panel of Medusa from a Roman ship, the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The head of the medusa is an example of refined craftsmanship. The detail of the hair, the scales, the snakes and the nostrils were made using hand held tools . the work is at its most frightening when viewed from a low anyle suggesting that it was designed to be places high up on the ship .  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panel of Medusa from a Roman ship, the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The head of the medusa is an example of refined craftsmanship. The detail of the hair, the scales, the snakes and the nostrils were made using hand held tools . the work is at its most frightening when viewed from a low anyle suggesting that it was designed to be places high up on the ship .  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy

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