• Roman sculpture of the Emperor Septime Severe, excavated  from Choud El Battan sculpted circa 193-211AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.73
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, excavated  from Carthage made circa 161-180 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.965.  Against a white background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Vitellius, excavated  from Althiburos sculpted circa 20 April 69-20 Dec 69AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.1784.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Vespesien, excavated  from Althiburos sculpted circa  69-79AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.1025.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Vespesien, excavated  from Althiburos sculpted circa  69-79AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C.1025
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Lucius Verus, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa 161-169 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis.   Against a grey background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Lucius Verus, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa 161-169 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis. Against a grey art background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Gordian 1st, excavated from Carthage ( ruled 3 months in 238AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 3212. v
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Gordian 1st, excavated from Carthage ( ruled 3 months in 238AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 3212
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Gordian 1st, excavated from Carthage ( ruled 3 months in 238AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 3212. Against a grey art background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Caracalla, excavated from Thuburbo-Majus, sculpted circa 211-217AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 1347.  Against a white background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Caracalla, excavated from Thuburbo-Majus, sculpted circa 211-217AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 1347
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Augustus, excavated from El-Jem, sculpted circa 27BC-14AD The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 72.  Against a black background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Augustus, excavated from El-Jem, sculpted circa 27BC-14AD The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Inv No: C. 72
  • Detail of a second Century Roman statue of Apollo excavated from the Theatre of Carthage. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Inv No C939
  • Detail of a second Century Roman statue of Apollo excavated from the Theatre of Carthage. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Inv No C939. Against a grey art background.
  • Second Century Roman statue of Apollo excavated from the Theatre of Carthage. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis, Tunisia. Inv No C939.   Against a grey background.
  • Roman sculpture of the Emperor Lucius Verus, excavated from Bulla Regia Theatre, sculpted circa 161-169 AD. The Bardo National Museum, Tunis.  Against a white background.
  • Original Roman bronze statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback. 175 AD. Marcus Aurelus was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. In 1979 it was discovered that the the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the courtyard of the Capitline Museum, had suffered badly from corrosion, particularly in its legs. The staue was removed from Michael Angelo’s plinth and was transferred to the National Instution for the Restoration of works of art for preservation. On the 11th of April 1990 the restored statue was returned to the Cpitaline courtyard and covered with a glass protective casing. The glass box ruined the design of Michael Angelo’s courtyard and it was decided to make a copy to display in the courted and move the original into the Capitoiline Musuem. This is a rare example of a bronze equestrian statue as it became common practice for the Romans in the late empire to melt down bronze statues to mint coins. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Original Roman bronze statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback. 175 AD. Marcus Aurelus was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. In 1979 it was discovered that the the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the courtyard of the Capitline Museum, had suffered badly from corrosion, particularly in its legs. The staue was removed from Michael Angelo’s plinth and was transferred to the National Instution for the Restoration of works of art for preservation. On the 11th of April 1990 the restored statue was returned to the Cpitaline courtyard and covered with a glass protective casing. The glass box ruined the design of Michael Angelo’s courtyard and it was decided to make a copy to display in the courted and move the original into the Capitoiline Musuem. This is a rare example of a bronze equestrian statue as it became common practice for the Romans in the late empire to melt down bronze statues to mint coins. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Original Roman bronze statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback. 175 AD. Marcus Aurelus was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. In 1979 it was discovered that the the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the courtyard of the Capitline Museum, had suffered badly from corrosion, particularly in its legs. The staue was removed from Michael Angelo’s plinth and was transferred to the National Instution for the Restoration of works of art for preservation. On the 11th of April 1990 the restored statue was returned to the Cpitaline courtyard and covered with a glass protective casing. The glass box ruined the design of Michael Angelo’s courtyard and it was decided to make a copy to display in the courted and move the original into the Capitoiline Musuem. This is a rare example of a bronze equestrian statue as it became common practice for the Romans in the late empire to melt down bronze statues to mint coins. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Gigantic Roman bronze statue hand possibly from a sculpture of Emperor Constantine, from Rome. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Gigantic Roman bronze statue hand from Rome. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Gigantic Roman bronze statue hand from Rome. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble statue of the Esquiline Venus or Aphrodite dated to the 1st cent. It was found in 1874 in Piazza Dante on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, probably part of the site of the Horti Lamiani, one of the imperial gardens, rich archaeological sources of classical sculpture. The Esquiline Venus is an example of the Pasitelean “eclectic" style of the Neo-Attic school. It combines elements from a variety of other previous schools - a Praxitelean idea of the nude female form; a face, muscular torso, and small high breasts in the fifth-century BC severe style; and pressed-together thighs typical of Hellenistic sculptures. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble statue of the Esquiline Venus or Aphrodite dated to the 1st cent. It was found in 1874 in Piazza Dante on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, probably part of the site of the Horti Lamiani, one of the imperial gardens, rich archaeological sources of classical sculpture. The Esquiline Venus is an example of the Pasitelean “eclectic" style of the Neo-Attic school. It combines elements from a variety of other previous schools - a Praxitelean idea of the nude female form; a face, muscular torso, and small high breasts in the fifth-century BC severe style; and pressed-together thighs typical of Hellenistic sculptures. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble statue of the Esquiline Venus or Aphrodite dated to the 1st cent. It was found in 1874 in Piazza Dante on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, probably part of the site of the Horti Lamiani, one of the imperial gardens, rich archaeological sources of classical sculpture. The Esquiline Venus is an example of the Pasitelean “eclectic" style of the Neo-Attic school. It combines elements from a variety of other previous schools - a Praxitelean idea of the nude female form; a face, muscular torso, and small high breasts in the fifth-century BC severe style; and pressed-together thighs typical of Hellenistic sculptures. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. . MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. . MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on the Christian sarcophagus side od Marcus Claudianus depicting scenes from  the new testament , circa 330 - 335 AD from the via della Lungara near S.Giacomo in Settimiana, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side depiction the Muses, circa 280 - 290 AD from the Villa Celimontana. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman decoration panels that covered the end of the beams from a Roman ship, from the age of Calligula, 37-41 AD, made from bronze. The forearms were used to ward off evil the extended gesture was meant to keep danger away.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Double sided Roman herm of Dionysus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the via Sallustiani, Rome. This bust shows Dionysus with his traditional band around his head, he appears as a youthful man on one side and as a mature man with a beard on this sid.   The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Hercules from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Via Appia. Hercules is portrayed as a mature man at rest, his naked body wrapped in a lion skin; he probably geld his club in his left hand. His style of dress was typical of that used in the Roman theatre. The statue of Hercules is a reworking of a Greek original dating from around the 2nd or 3rd cent. BC .  Inv  115165, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Silenus or Papposilenus from the mid 2nd cent. AD excavated from the Villa Spithoever, via Flavia, Rome, Italy. Papposilenus, the aged Silenus was tutor to Cionysus. In this statue he is portrayed with a hairy coat accentuating his wild nature. When the statue was complete it may have had its right arm held up grasping a bunch of grapes and a cup of wine in the left hand. The statue is copied from a late hellenistic original dating from 2nd cent. BC known as the satyr pouring wine by Greek sculptor Praxiteles circa 370-300 BC .  Inv  78294, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of a young Satyr from the Hadranic period circa 117-138 AD excavated from an area near the via XX Settembre and Via Firenza, Rome, Italy. A young Satyr, wearing a panther’s skin tied on the right shoulder, plays the tibia oblique (flute) whist reclining next to a tree trunk. The statue is based on a Greek prototype from the school of Greek sculptor Praxiteles created around 300 BC.  Inv 551, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of a young Satyr from the Hadranic period circa 117-138 AD excavated from an area near the via XX Settembre and Via Firenza, Rome, Italy. A young Satyr, wearing a panther’s skin tied on the right shoulder, plays the tibia oblique (flute) whist reclining next to a tree trunk. The statue is based on a Greek prototype from the school of Greek sculptor Praxiteles created around 300 BC.  Inv 551, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an African Acrobat from early Imperial period excavated from the Villa Patrizi, via Nomentana, Rome, Italy. A young African performs an acrobatic trick very similar to those performed by tribal members from an area of the Nile, the Tentyitae (described by Pliny in Naturalis Historia), where skilled divers dive into the water from the backs of crocodiles. The work is based on a hellenistic original and here has beed adapted for the Roman period as a fountain decoration. The hole in the acrobats mouth is a water spout.  Inv 40009, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of an African Acrobat from early Imperial period excavated from the Villa Patrizi, via Nomentana, Rome, Italy. A young African performs an acrobatic trick very similar to those performed by tribal members from an area of the Nile, the Tentyitae (described by Pliny in Naturalis Historia), where skilled divers dive into the water from the backs of crocodiles. The work is based on a hellenistic original and here has beed adapted for the Roman period as a fountain decoration. The hole in the acrobats mouth is a water spout.  Inv 40009, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Apollo. known as the Chigi Apollo,  mid 2nd cent. AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. As suggested by the quiver strap slung across the body, the god held a bow and arrow , in a pose of absorbed meditation. Wrapped around the tree trunk which acts as a support are gods attributes: the laurel and the snake. This classical statue is a reworking of an original Greek statue of the 4th cent. BC.  Inv 75675, The National Roman Museum, Rome, ItalyThe National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Apollo. known as the Chigi Apollo,  mid 2nd cent. AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. As suggested by the quiver strap slung across the body, the god held a bow and arrow , in a pose of absorbed meditation. Wrapped around the tree trunk which acts as a support are gods attributes: the laurel and the snake. This classical statue is a reworking of an original Greek statue of the 4th cent. BC.  Inv 75675, The National Roman Museum, Rome, ItalyThe National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue of Apollo. known as the Chigi Apollo,  mid 2nd cent. AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. As suggested by the quiver strap slung across the body, the god held a bow and arrow , in a pose of absorbed meditation. Wrapped around the tree trunk which acts as a support are gods attributes: the laurel and the snake. This classical statue is a reworking of an original Greek statue of the 4th cent. BC.  Inv 75675, The National Roman Museum, Rome, ItalyThe National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman bust of a female deity, circa 117-138 AD from the Villa Adriana (Hadrian), Tivoli, Italy. The head, made separately for insertion onto a larger than life size body, is that of a female deity; type is known from other copies from a Greek original, probably from Attic circa 470-460 B.C. The bust was found in Hadrian’s villa and is therefore dated to 117-138 AD. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Statue of an Amazon on horseback and a Barbarian, Circa mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the  Imperial villa near Faro, Italy. An Amazon perched on a rearing horse clashes with a barbarian who attempts to deal a final blow before dying. The work is based on a Hellenistic original from the Pergamon school from the second half of the 2nd cent. B.C, The group was displayed in the Imperial villa  with another of the same theme now in the Borghese collection. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Statue of an Amazon on horseback and a Barbarian, Circa mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the  Imperial villa near Faro, Italy. An Amazon perched on a rearing horse clashes with a barbarian who attempts to deal a final blow before dying. The work is based on a Hellenistic original from the Pergamon school from the second half of the 2nd cent. B.C, The group was displayed in the Imperial villa  with another of the same theme now in the Borghese collection. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a flavian women possibly Domita, circa 69-96 AD excavated from Terracina. This portrait can be dated from the typical hairstyle made popular by Flavian women. It may be of Domitia Longina who was  wife to the Roman Emperor Domitian. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue in the nude hero style of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman statue in the nude hero style of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Emperor Antoninus Pius, 138-161 AD. Titus Fulvius Aelius Hadrianus Antoninus Augustus Pius, also known as Antoninus, was Roman Emperor from 138 to 161. He was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty and the Aurelii.[3]<br />
He acquired the name Pius after his accession to the throne, either because he compelled the Senate to deify his adoptive father Hadrian, or because he had saved senators sentenced to death by Hadrian in his later years. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Sabina, circa 135 AD excavated from the via Appia, Rome. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Sabina, circa 135 AD excavated from the via Appia, Rome. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of Sabina, circa 135 AD excavated from the via Appia, Rome. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young man from 110 AD. In this portrait, the hairstyle and facial features are typical of the Trajan era of portraiture. The hairstyle is characterised by a slight central parting on the forehead . Inv 287, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman portrait bust of a young charioteer from the age of Domitian, 81-96AD. This statue of a young charioteer, with Oriental eastern Mediterranean features, is wearing a tunic stopped on the right shoulder by a flattened circular fibula (clasp). The hairstyle, with its ’S’ shaped curls, was made artificially with an iron (calamistrum). This style was inspired by official portrayts of a young Domitian, who emulated Neronian style during the last years of his reign. The bust was rounded to be inserted onto a modern pillar. . Inv 276, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman bust of Alexander the Great, 2nd cent B.C bronze with gold leaf. The head is from a smaller than life size statue. The elongated curls, the parted locks and the diadem that fastens the hair at the back, are clear indications that the head is a portrait of the Macedonian King Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.). Inv 66177, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman bust of Alexander the Great, 2nd cent B.C bronze with gold leaf. The head is from a smaller than life size statue. The elongated curls, the parted locks and the diadem that fastens the hair at the back, are clear indications that the head is a portrait of the Macedonian King Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.). Inv 66177, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Greek  statue of a Niobid from the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), a Greek original from the 5th cent BC found near the Via Collina and Piazza Sallustio, Rome. The wounded female figure whose back has been struck by an arrow is one of fourteen children of Amphion of Thebes and Niobe.  According to myth, Niobe insulted Lato, mother of the divine Apollo and Artemis; “why ever should Lato, a women of common birth, with a coarse daughter and an effeminate son, be preferred to me, the niece of Zeus and Atlas, scourge of the Phyrigians and the royal house of Cadmus?.”. The vengeful Lato ordered Apollo and Artemis to kill Niobe’s children who were struck down with arrows. In antiquity the myth of the Niobids was the subject matter of numerous works of art. The statue , a 5th century Greek original, was used as an ornamental piece in the Horti Sallustiani (Gardens of Sallust), where it was found with other figures of Niobids, two of which are now at the Ny Carlsberg Glypotheck in Copenhargen. Originally it was part of a pedimental group which decorated the facade of a Greek Temple. Inv 72274, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Rare original Greek bronze statue of an Athlete after a boxing match, a 1st cent BC. The athlete, seated on a boulder, is resting after a boxing match. The boulder is a modern addition that replicates the ancient original. The face, ears, and nose are severely wounded by blows received during the match. No wounds appear on the body since ancient boxing practices made the afce the main target. The boxer is only wearing a sort of loin cloth (kynodesme) around his waist. Elaborate leather gloves (himantes oxeis) protect the hands and the forearms. They consist of thick leather straps that bind the four fingers, leaving the thumb free. On the forearms the gloves are bordered with fur lining. A series of marks on the straps above the left ring fingers seem to be a signature of the Athenian sculptor Appolonios, son of Nestor who was active during the 1st century B.C. Careful analysis shows that the marks are actually corrosions of the bronze surface. The Greek letter ‘a’ is impressed on the middle toe of the left foot and is probably a mark identifying the workshop that produced the statue. The statue of the boxer is of the highest quality with a highly detailed rendition of the athletic anatomy and facial feature. The artist was clearly inspired by the style of Greek sculptor Lysippus and scholars generally consider it an original Greek bronze of the 1st Century B.C. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Gordian III made between 238 and 244 AD and excavated from Ostia. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243AD). In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Gordian III made between 238 and 244 AD and excavated from Ostia. At the age of 13, he became the youngest sole legal Roman emperor throughout the existence of the united Roman Empire. Gordian was the son of Antonia Gordiana and an unnamed Roman Senator who died before 238. When the Persians under Shapur I invaded Mesopotamia, the young emperor opened the doors of the Temple of Janus for the last time in Roman history, and sent a large army to the East. The Sassanids were driven back over the Euphrates and defeated in the Battle of Resaena (243AD). In the beginning of 244, the Persians counter-attacked. Persian sources claim that a battle was fought (Battle of Misiche) near modern Fallujah (Iraq) and resulted in a major Roman defeat and the death of Gordian III. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of  Alexander Severus made between 222 and 235 AD and excavated from Ostia. Roman Emperor from 222 to 235. Alexander was the last emperor of the Severan dynasty. As emperor, Alexander's peace time reign was prosperous. However militarily Rome was confronted with the rising Sassanid Empire. He managed to check the threat of the Sassanids, but when campaigning against Germanic tribes of Germania, Alexander attempted to bring peace by engaging in diplomacy and bribery. This alienated many in the legions and led to a conspiracy to assassinate and replace him. . The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Septimius Severus made between 196 and 197 AD and excavated from Ostia. Severus became Roman emperor in 193 AD After deposing and killing the incumbent emperor Didius Julianus. In 202, he campaigned in Africa and Mauretania against the Garamantes; capturing their capital Garama and expanding the Limes Tripolitanus along the southern frontier of the empire. Late in his reign he travelled to Britain, strengthening Hadrian's Wall and reoccupying the Antonine Wall. Severus died in early 211 at Eboracum (today York, England), succeeded by his sons Caracalla and Geta who fought constantly until Caracalla had Geta murdered. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus better known as Caracalla, made between 210 and 213 AD and excavated from the via Cassia, Rome. The realism of this  sculpture of Caracalla captures cruelty of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Roman Empire. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana  granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217, by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard who was possibly resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Publius Septimius Antoninus Geta better known as Geta brother of Caracalla, made between 209 and 212 AD and excavated from the via XX Septembre, Rome. Geta was the younger son of Septimius Severus by his second wife Julia Domna. Geta  was a Roman emperor who ruled with his father Septimius Severus and his older brother Caracalla from 209 until his death, when he was murdered on Caracalla's orders.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus better known as Caracalla, made between 210 and 213 AD and excavated from the via Cassia, Rome. The realism of this  sculpture of Caracalla captures cruelty of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Roman Empire. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana  granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217, by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard who was possibly resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus better known as Caracalla, made between 210 and 213 AD and excavated from the via Cassia, Rome. The realism of this  sculpture of Caracalla captures cruelty of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Roman Empire. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana  granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217, by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard who was possibly resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture bust of Marcus Aurelius Severus Antoninus Augustus better known as Caracalla, made between 210 and 213 AD and excavated from the via Cassia, Rome. The realism of this  sculpture of Caracalla captures cruelty of the most notorious and unpleasant of emperors because of the massacres and persecutions he authorized and instigated throughout the Roman Empire. The eldest son of Septimius Severus, he reigned jointly with his father from 198 until Severus' death in 211. For a short time he then ruled jointly with his younger brother Geta until he had him murdered later in 211. Caracalla's reign was also notable for the Constitutio Antoniniana  granting Roman citizenship to all freemen throughout the Roman Empire. While travelling from Edessa to continue the war with Parthia, he was assassinated while urinating at a roadside near Carrhae on 8 April 217, by Julius Martialis, an officer of his personal bodyguard who was possibly resentful at not being promoted to the rank of centurion.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman sculpture of a Discus Thrower, Paros marble made in the mid 2nd cent AD excavated from the Villa Palombara, Esquilino, Rome. The Disus Thrower statue is almost the only fully preserved example of its type, the statue is a faithful copy of one of the most admired works of antiquity; the bronze discobolus by Greek sculptor Myron circa 450 BC. The statue depicts the moment preceding the release of the discus, the athlete appears to move in the surrounding space with a complex action, exemplifying the Hellenistic experimentation of the plastic reprentation of the human body. Inv 126371, The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Nerva, circa  96 to 98 AD excavated from Tivoli. Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98 AD. On 18 September 96 AD Domitian was assassinated and Nerva became Emperor  at the age of sixty-five after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Nerva, circa  96 to 98 AD excavated from Tivoli. Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98 AD. On 18 September 96 AD Domitian was assassinated and Nerva became Emperor  at the age of sixty-five after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Nerva, circa  96 to 98 AD excavated from Tivoli. Marcus Cocceius Nerva Caesar Augustus was Roman Emperor from 96 to 98 AD. On 18 September 96 AD Domitian was assassinated and Nerva became Emperor  at the age of sixty-five after a lifetime of imperial service under Nero and the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from the ancient market, Rome. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from the ancient market, Rome. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from Albano Laziale. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from Albano Laziale. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait bust of Roman Emperor Commodus, circa 180 AD excavated from Albano Laziale. Roman Emperor from 180 to 192 AD. Commodus also ruled as co-emperor with his father Marcus Aurelius from 177 until his father's death in 180 AD.. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Portrait statue of the so-called General Tivoli a Roman commander circa 70-70BC made in Greek marble and found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules, Tivoli, Italy. A masterpiece of hoary sculpture from the late Republican period, this statue portrays an elderly person with a young, nude body. The cape (paludamentum) which covers part of the stomach and legs, and the cuirass embossed with the head of Medusa (lorica) which functions as a support, identify it as a high-ranking soldier. It can be presumed that the right arm is raised, as suggested by the chest muscles holdingg the shoulder, and that the figure was leaning on a lance. The style derives from Hellenistic designs pf ‘hero nudity’ (effigies schilleae) used, starting in the 2nd century BC, by members of the Roman ruling class which has a strong political need of self-representation. The authoritarian, imposing stance together with the marked realism of the facial features, is one of the best examples of Hellenistic bravura combined with realistic Italic tradition. Stylistic considerations and the fact that the statue was found in the excavation of the Temple of Hercules which was built during the dictatorship of Cornelius Sulla, date the statue to between 90 and 70 BC. Its commemoration in Tivoli leads us to believe that it may have been someone from the area, probably a lieutenant of Sulla who paid for the portrait himself, or that it was a public honour, in the most important shrine in the city, dedicated to the god-hero called ‘Victor’, i.e, the protector of military expeditions. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman head sculpture in the ‘Italic cubism ‘ style, 2nd - 3rd century BC, found in the foundations of the Ministery of Finance on the via XX Septembre, Rome. The head, the back of which was not completed, shows markedly realistic, clear features. The style, a blend of Greek art and Italic traditions, is traceable to Etruscan portraiture of the so called ‘Italic cubism’ of the 3rd century BC, and local stone used was well suited to this genre. It is believed to be the only known example of this style and has been roughly dated to between the 3rd and 2nd century BC. The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Bust of Antinous - late Hadrianic period circa 130-138AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Bust of Antinous - late Hadrianic period circa 130-138AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman Sarcophagus with detailed relief sculptured panels with battle scenes. This large sarcophagus which was found in 1931 near the Tiburtina, in the eastern suburbs of the ancient city, shows on its front a symbolic battle, staged on two levels. This composition focuses on the progress of the Roman horseman, depicted in the guise of a universal victor, in a melee of soldiers, spears and horses; the Romans are delivering savage blows, devastating their enemies. The bloody scenes are framed by two pairs of enslaved barbarians, whose afflicted demeanour expresses the suffering which comes to those who rebel against the dominion of Rome. The dramatic animation of the combat emphasised by the deep chiaroscuro obtained by a skilful feat of carving. The low relief on the sides of the sarcophagus shows events subsequent to the encounter; on one side barbarian prisoners cross the river on the other chiefs submit to the Roman officials. The freeze on the lid, between two corner masks, celebrates the dead man and his wife, presented in the centre is the act of ‘dextarum iunctio’; on the left, the women exercises her ‘virtue’ in the house, educating her children; on the right, the, after his warlike activities, receives his 'clementia'. The faces of the principle characters remain incomplete, awaiting the carving of the features of the dead people. The decoration of the sarcophagus, inspired by many scenes on the Antonine Column, can be dated to around 180AD. The military insignia represented on the upper edge of the casket - the eagle of the Legio III Flavia and the boar of the Legio I Itlaica - enable us perhaps to identify the dead man as Aurelius Iulius Pompilius, an official of Marcus Aurelius in command of two cavalry squadron on detachment to those two legions during the war against Marcomanni (1720-175AD). National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Statue of  Atalanta a 2nd century Roman sculpture restored in the 17th century. Atalanta  is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.. The Mazarin Collection  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of  Atalanta a 2nd century Roman sculpture restored in the 17th century. Atalanta  is a character in Greek mythology, a virgin huntress, unwilling to marry, and loved by the hero Meleager.. The Mazarin Collection  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Relief sculpture called Les Trois Tyches, a Roman relief sculpture circa 160 AD found on the Appia Way, Rome, Italy. A Tyche was the deity of luck or fotune and brought prosperity to a city. She is the daughter of Aphrodite and Zeus or Hermes. From the Borghese Collection  Inv MR 873   (or Ma 590), The Louvre Mueum, Paris
  • Relief sculpture called Les Trois Tyches, a Roman relief sculpture circa 160 AD found on the Appia Way, Rome, Italy. A Tyche was the deity of luck or fotune and brought prosperity to a city. She is the daughter of Aphrodite and Zeus or Hermes. From the Borghese Collection  Inv MR 873   (or Ma 590), The Louvre Mueum, Paris
  • A Roman statue of the Parthenon Athena, a Roman copy of the great statue from the Parthenon in Athens.  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • A Roman statue of the Parthenon Athena, a Roman copy of the great statue from the Parthenon in Athens.  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • A Roman statue of the Parthenon Athena, a Roman copy of the great statue from the Parthenon in Athens.  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Juno known as La Providence, a 2nd century AD Roman sculpture from Rome, Italy. Juno is an ancient Roman goddess, the protector and special counselor of the state. As the patron goddess of Rome and the Roman Empire, Juno was called Regina ("Queen") and, together with Jupiter and Minerva, was worshipped as a triad on the Capitol (Juno Capitolina) in Rome. The Royal Collection Inv No. MR 333 or Ma 485, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of a male divinity known as Jupiter de Smyrne, a 2nd Roman statue from Smyrne, Izmir present day Turkey. The Royal Collection Inv No. MR 255 or Ma 13, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Female statue known as the Muse de Louveciennes, a Roman statue of the 3rd century AD from Rome. The Royal Collection Inv No. MR 354 or Ma 170, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Female statue known as the Muse de Louveciennes, a Roman statue of the 3rd century AD from Rome. The Royal Collection Inv No. MR 354 or Ma 170, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Bust of Rome - a 1st or 2nd century Ad Roman sculpture made in marble, from Italy. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 643 or Ma 1209, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of a Captive Barbarian - a 2nd century Ad Roman sculpture made in Porphyry and white marble from Rome, Italy. Restored by Pietro Benini brother of Bernin. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The statue was from the facade of the Villa Borghese. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 331 or Ma 1385, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of a Captive Barbarian - a 2nd century Ad Roman sculpture made in Porphyry and white marble from Rome, Italy. Restored by Pietro Benini brother of Bernin. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The statue was from the facade of the Villa Borghese. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 331 or Ma 1385, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of a Captive Barbarian - a 2nd century Ad Roman sculpture made in Porphyry and white marble from Rome, Italy. Restored by Pietro Benini brother of Bernin. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The statue was from the facade of the Villa Borghese. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 331 or Ma 1385, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of a Captive Barbarian - a 2nd century Ad Roman sculpture made in Porphyry and white marble from Rome, Italy. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The statue was from the facade of the Villa Borghese. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 332 or Ma 1381, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of a Captive Barbarian - a 2nd century Ad Roman sculpture made in Porphyry and white marble from Rome, Italy. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The statue was from the facade of the Villa Borghese. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 332 or Ma 1381, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of a Captive Barbarian - a 2nd century Ad Roman sculpture made in Porphyry and white marble from Rome, Italy. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The statue was from the facade of the Villa Borghese. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 332 or Ma 1381, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Antinous Mondragone, A Roman marble bust from circa 130 AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 412 or Ma 1205, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Antinous Mondragone, A Roman marble bust from circa 130 AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 412 or Ma 1205, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Antinous Mondragone, A Roman marble bust from circa 130 AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 412 or Ma 1205, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Antinous Mondragone, A Roman marble bust from circa 130 AD. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 412 or Ma 1205, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue known as Antonius as Aristaeus. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. This statue was part of the collection of ancient sculptors bought in Rome by Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) for his chateau in Poitou. The favourite of the Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) Antonius  is depicted here as Aristaeus, a minor Greek God of fruit trees and bee keeping. The Richelieu Collection, Inv No. MR 73 or Ma 5781, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue known as Antonius as Aristaeus. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. This statue was part of the collection of ancient sculptors bought in Rome by Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) for his chateau in Poitou. The favourite of the Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) Antonius  is depicted here as Aristaeus, a minor Greek God of fruit trees and bee keeping. The Richelieu Collection, Inv No. MR 73 or Ma 5781, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue known as Antonius as Aristaeus. Antinous was the young Bithynian favoured by the emperor Hadrian who was deified after drowning under mysterious circumstances in the waters of the Nile circa 130AD. Thanks to the promotion of the cult Antinous portraits can be found throughout the Empire in the places most frequented by Hadrian. This statue was part of the collection of ancient sculptors bought in Rome by Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642) for his chateau in Poitou. The favourite of the Emperor Hadrian (117-138 AD) Antonius  is depicted here as Aristaeus, a minor Greek God of fruit trees and bee keeping. The Richelieu Collection, Inv No. MR 73 or Ma 5781, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Eros known as The Genie of Borghese - a  Roman copy of a 4th century BC Greek original from Rome, Monte Cavallo. The statue belonged to Domenico Biondo, employee of Pope Paul V Borghese. The statue joined in 1608 in the collection of Scipio Borghese. Wings, arms and legs of Eros, formerly called Genie Borghese, are modern. In the 18th century it was much admired, especially in France, as one of the seven most important parts of the collection Borghese. The Borghese Collection Inv No. MR 207 or Ma 435, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Narcissus known as The Marazin Hermaphrodite or The Genie at Eternal Rest - a 3rd century AD Roman marble statue. The restoration combines an ancient  funeral head with another ancient Roman statue. The Mazarin Collection Inv No. MR 207 or Ma 435, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Narcissus known as The Marazin Hermaphrodite or The Genie at Eternal Rest - a 3rd century AD Roman marble statue. The restoration combines an ancient  funeral head with another ancient Roman statue. The Mazarin Collection Inv No. MR 207 or Ma 435, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Narcissus known as The Marazin Hermaphrodite or The Genie at Eternal Rest - a 3rd century AD Roman marble statue. The restoration combines an ancient  funeral head with another ancient Roman statue. The Mazarin Collection Inv No. MR 207 or Ma 435, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Narcissus known as The Marazin Hermaphrodite or The Genie at Eternal Rest - a 3rd century AD Roman marble statue. The restoration combines an ancient  funeral head with another ancient Roman statue. The Mazarin Collection Inv No. MR 207 or Ma 435, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Adonis - Tis antique statue was completely restored in the 16th century by Francois Du Quesnoy for the collection of Cardinal Mazarin. The Mazarin Collection Inv No. MR 239, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Narcissus known as The Marazin Hermaphrodite or The Genie at Eternal Rest - a 3rd century AD Roman marble statue. The restoration combines an ancient  funeral head with another ancient Roman statue. The Mazarin Collection Inv No. MR 207 or Ma 435, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Satatue known as the Sitting captive - a Roman sculpture of the 1st or 2nd century SAD made out of  Green Breche stone from the Wadi Hammamat, Egypt. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The body can be dated  to the 1st century AD and is probably from the near east. The recomposed statue , named the defeated barbarian king, was the centre piece of a room in the Villa Albani (1692-1779) in Rome.  The Albani Collection, Inv No. LL 17 or Ma 1383, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Satatue known as the Sitting captive - a Roman sculpture of the 1st or 2nd century SAD made out of  Green Breche stone from the Wadi Hammamat, Egypt. The head and hands do not belong to the statue. The head is wearing a hat Phyrigian hat and recalls the same style as the famous Farnese Prisoners statues who were defeated Dacians from the Forum of Trajan (98-117 AD). The body can be dated  to the 1st century AD and is probably from the near east. The recomposed statue , named the defeated barbarian king, was the centre piece of a room in the Villa Albani (1692-1779) in Rome.  The Albani Collection, Inv No. LL 17 or Ma 1383, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Thetsis - a 2nd century AD Roman statue found in the city of Lavinia, Italy. Thetis is encountered in Greek mythology mostly as a sea nymph or known as the goddess of water, one of the fifty Nereids, daughters of the ancient sea god Nereus. he statue belonged to a set of ten divinities formerly presented in the portico hemicycle of the city. The Albani Collection Inv No. LL 19 (Usual No Ma 2244), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Thetsis - a 2nd century AD Roman statue found in the city of Lavinia, Italy. Thetis (/ˈθɛtɪs/; Ancient Greek: Θέτις, [tʰétis]), is encountered in Greek mythology mostly as a sea nymph or known as the goddess of water, one of the fifty Nereids, daughters of the ancient sea god Nereus. he statue belonged to a set of ten divinities formerly presented in the portico hemicycle of the city. The Albani Collection Inv No. LL 19 (Usual No Ma 2244), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Antinous - a 2nd century Roman sculpture in marble from Italy. The statue is a montage of a more modern head of Antinous with an older body in the style of Hercules. Inv No. MR 74 (Usual No Ma 2243), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Esculape or Asclepius - a second century AD Roman sculpture. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts, his daughters included Hygieia, ”Hygiene” the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation as well as Iaso, the goddess of recuperation from illness and Aceso the goddess of the healing process.  The Albani Collection, Inv No.  Ma 929, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Antinous - a 2nd century Roman sculpture in marble from Italy. The statue is a montage of a more modern head of Antinous with an older body in the style of Hercules. Inv No. MR 74 (Usual No Ma 2243), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Esculape or Asclepius - a second century AD Roman sculpture. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts, his daughters included Hygieia, ”Hygiene” the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation as well as Iaso, the goddess of recuperation from illness and Aceso the goddess of the healing process.  The Albani Collection, Inv No.  Ma 929, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of Esculape or Asclepius - a second century AD Roman sculpture. Asclepius represents the healing aspect of the medical arts, his daughters included Hygieia, ”Hygiene” the goddess/personification of health, cleanliness, and sanitation as well as Iaso, the goddess of recuperation from illness and Aceso the goddess of the healing process.  The Albani Collection, Inv No.  Ma 929, Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Statue of the Emperor Titus - an end of the 1st century AD Roman statue probably from Rome. Titus was Emperor of the Romans fom 79 to 81 AD. The statue looks like it may have recieved some restoration especially around the eyes and the style of changes points to the sculptor Girardon in 1685. From the French Royal Collection  Inv MR 358   (or Ma 1067), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Statue of the Emperor Titus - an end of the 1st century AD Roman statue probably from Rome. Titus was Emperor of the Romans fom 79 to 81 AD. The statue looks like it may have recieved some restoration especially around the eyes and the style of changes points to the sculptor Girardon in 1685. From the French Royal Collection  Inv MR 358   (or Ma 1067), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Venus and Cupid - a its or 2nd Roman statue restored in the 17th century by Alessandro l’Algarde. The statue was acquired in Rome in 1630 by Cardinal Richelieu. Restored by Alessandro l’Algarde the modern head is a copy of the Medici Venus or Aphrodite in Florence.  The Richelieu Collection, Inv No. MR 386 (Usual No Ma 2287), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Anchyrrhoe Nymph - a 2nd century Roman sculpture from Iatly. The Anchyrrhoe Nymph is an allegory of Fortune and was desd in the gardens of the chateau d’Ecouen in the 17th century. The style is copied from a Hellanistic Greek original and also reprints the dance as a muse. Inv No. MR 310 (Usual No Ma 868), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Child and Goose - a 1st or 2nd century Roman sculpture from Villa des Quintilii on the Appia Way south of Rome, Italy. Three other similar versions of this Roman sculpture can be found in the Vatican, music and Geneva. The sculpture is attributed to Boethos who was a 2nd century sculptor.  The Braschi Collection, Inv No. MR168 (Usual No Ma 40), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • The Flaying of Marsyas - a 1st or 2nd century AD Roman sculpture from Italy. In the contest between Apollo and Marsyas, the terms stated that the winner could treat the defeated party any way he wanted. Since the contest was judged by the Muses,[6] Marsyas naturally lost and was flayed alive in a cave near Celaenae for his hubris to challenge a god. Apollo then nailed Marsyas' skin to a pine tree,[7] near Lake Aulocrene (Karakuyu Gölü in Turkey).  Inv No. MR267 (Usual No Ma 542), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Athletes head, Diadumene type - A Roman sculpture circa 150 AD found at the abbey of Vauluisant in Villeneuve-L’Archeveque, France.  Inv No. MND 1441 (Usual No Ma 3483), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Athletes head, Diadumene type - A Roman sculpture circa 150 AD found at the abbey of Vauluisant in Villeneuve-L’Archeveque, France.  Inv No. MND 1441 (Usual No Ma 3483), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • The Ares Borghese is a Roman marble statue of the imperial era, 1st or 2nd century AD. This statue possibly preserves some features of an original work in bronze, now lost, of the 5th century BC by Alcamenes, an Athenian sculptor, or the statue may not be a copy of Alcamenes's, but instead a Roman creation according to a classicising or Neo-Attic type. Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 373 (Usual No Ma 370), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • The Ares Borghese is a Roman marble statue of the imperial era, 1st or 2nd century AD. This statue possibly preserves some features of an original work in bronze, now lost, of the 5th century BC by Alcamenes, an Athenian sculptor, or the statue may not be a copy of Alcamenes's, but instead a Roman creation according to a classicising or Neo-Attic type. Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 373 (Usual No Ma 370), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • The Ares Borghese is a Roman marble statue of the imperial era, 1st or 2nd century AD. This statue possibly preserves some features of an original work in bronze, now lost, of the 5th century BC by Alcamenes, an Athenian sculptor, or the statue may not be a copy of Alcamenes's, but instead a Roman creation according to a classicising or Neo-Attic type. Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 373 (Usual No Ma 370), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Venus (Aphrodite) in Arms. A 2nd century AD marble Roman statue completed in the 16th century. The so called Venus in Arms shows Venus with a sword and armour accompanied by a cupid that is about to try on her oversized helmet. The statue belonged to the collection of Tiberio Ceuli, purchased by Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1576-1623) in 1607. The Roman head does not seem to belong to the statue. It graced one niche of the living room of the Villa Borghese.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 373 (Usual No Ma 370), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Venus (Aphrodite) in Arms. A 2nd century AD marble Roman statue completed in the 16th century. The so called Venus in Arms shows Venus with a sword and armour accompanied by a cupid that is about to try on her oversized helmet. The statue belonged to the collection of Tiberio Ceuli, purchased by Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1576-1623) in 1607. The Roman head does not seem to belong to the statue. It graced one niche of the living room of the Villa Borghese.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 373 (Usual No Ma 370), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Venus (Aphrodite) in Arms. A 2nd century AD marble Roman statue completed in the 16th century. The so called Venus in Arms shows Venus with a sword and armour accompanied by a cupid that is about to try on her oversized helmet. The statue belonged to the collection of Tiberio Ceuli, purchased by Cardinal Scipione Borghese (1576-1623) in 1607. The Roman head does not seem to belong to the statue. It graced one niche of the living room of the Villa Borghese.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 373 (Usual No Ma 370), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman Statue of Venus (Aphrodite), a 2nd - 3rd century AD marble statue from Italy.  This Roman statue of Aphrodite is the result of a fit between the bottom of an ancient body, a torso of the XVI century and an ancient face and top of head. The statue follows the style of a modest Aphrodite, known by other Roman replicas are copies of 3rd century BC Hellanistic Greek statues now lost.<br />
Borghese collection, Inv No. MR. 279 (Usual No Ma 369), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Diomedes - A 2nd or 3rd century AD Roman copy of a Greek classical sculpture from about 430-370 BC. This Roman statue represent Diomede, one of the Greek hero of the Trojan War. This statue belongs to a series of ancient replicas (Naples, Munich), which copy the original Greek statue from the school of Polykleitos, attributed to the sculptor Naucydes or Cresilas who worked in Athens to 440-430 BC. From the Cardinal Richelieu Collection  Inv MR 265   (or Ma 890), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Bust of Greek Philosopher Plato. A  2nd century AD Roman sculpture in marble. In  423-348 BC Greek sculptor Silanion created a bronze bust of Plato to adorn the gardens of the Acadamy in Athens, at the request of Persia Mithridite, according to Diogenes Laertius (De Vitis Philosophorum III, 25 citing Memorabilia Favorinus ). This Roman copy of the Greek original can be identified by the la two letters of “Plato” inscribed on it.  Inv MR 415   (or Ma 2654), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Bust of Greek Philosopher Plato. A  2nd century AD Roman sculpture in marble. In  423-348 BC Greek sculptor Silanion created a bronze bust of Plato to adorn the gardens of the Acadamy in Athens, at the request of Persia Mithridite, according to Diogenes Laertius (De Vitis Philosophorum III, 25 citing Memorabilia Favorinus ). This Roman copy of the Greek original can be identified by the la two letters of “Plato” inscribed on it.  Inv MR 415   (or Ma 2654), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Roman bust of Greek philosopher Aristolte. 1st - 2nd century AD from Italy made of Pentilic Marble from Athens Greece. Aristotle lived around 384-322 BC and became the tutor of Alexander The Great. This bust was copied from a lost Greek bronze original by Lysippe (370-300BC) , sculptor to Alexander The Great. Traces of the original paint can be seen on the beard. From the Borghese collection Inv Mr or Ma 80 ,  Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • 2nd century Roman marble torso copy of the statue of Aphrodite of Cnidus by Praixitele. Many Roman replicas exist of the Aphrodite of Cnidus which is one of the most famous statues of antiquity. The statue depicts the goddess bathing with a vase of water beside her. The lost original is a Hellenistic Greek sculpture made in 360-350 BC which is attributed to Athenian sculpture Praxiteles. Tradition has it that the model for the original was the lover of sculptor Phryne. The original is the oldest known female nude in Greek sculpture.  Inv Ma 2184 Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman marble head of Aphrodite (Venus)  known as the “Kaufmann head” once conserved in Berlin. Circa 150 BC found in Asia Minor.  Inv MND 2027 ( or Ma 3518) Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Roman marble head of Aphrodite (Venus)  known as the “Kaufmann head” once conserved in Berlin. Circa 150 BC found in Asia Minor.  Inv MND 2027 ( or Ma 3518) Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite- type known as the Venus of Arles. A Roman statue in marble of the 1st - 2nd century AD in marble from Rome. The statue is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) and is  probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae a lost bronze sculpture by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . From the Royal collection Inv MR 366 ( or Ma 437), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite- type known as the Venus of Arles. A Roman statue in marble of the 1st - 2nd century AD in marble from Rome. The statue is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) and is  probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae a lost bronze sculpture by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . From the Royal collection Inv MR 366 ( or Ma 437), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite- type known as the Venus of Arles. A Roman statue in marble of the 1st - 2nd century AD in marble from Rome. The statue is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) and is  probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae a lost bronze sculpture by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . From the Royal collection Inv MR 366 ( or Ma 437), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite- type known as the Venus of Arles. A Roman statue in marble of the 1st - 2nd century AD in marble from Rome. The statue is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) and is  probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae a lost bronze sculpture by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . From the Royal collection Inv MR 366 ( or Ma 437), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite- type known as the Venus of Arles. A Roman statue in marble of the 1st - 2nd century AD in marble from Rome. The statue is a 1.94-metre-high (6.4 ft) and is  probably a copy of the Aphrodite of Thespiae a lost bronze sculpture by 4th century BC Greek Athenian sculpture Praxiteles . From the Royal collection Inv MR 366 ( or Ma 437), Louvre Museum, Paris.
  • Silenus (Faune to the Romans) and The Child ( Dionysus, Bacchus to the Romans). A 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble discovered in the gardens of the Salluste in Rome, Italy. Silenus was ordered by Zeus to take his illegitimate son son Dionysus away from the wrath of Hera to the nymphs. This staue is a Roman copy of a lost bronze Greek original by the 4th century BC Greek sculptor  Lysippos.  From the Borghese collection, Inv MR 346   (or Ma 922), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) “Capitoline Type”. 2nd centuryAD Roman statue in marble discovered at the Acqua Traversa near Rome.  The statue belong to a series of Roman replicas of a Greek original that reproduce a famous picture of goddess Aphrodite (Venus) and the best known copy is in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. The now lost, the Greek original dates from the 2nd century or 3rd BC and is known as the "Aphrodite of Knidos” in which Aphrodite accompanied by a cupid is surprised while bathing.  Inv MR 369   (or Ma 335), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) “Capitoline Type”. 2nd centuryAD Roman statue in marble discovered at the Acqua Traversa near Rome.  The statue belong to a series of Roman replicas of a Greek original that reproduce a famous picture of goddess Aphrodite (Venus) and the best known copy is in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. The now lost, the Greek original dates from the 2nd century or 3rd BC and is known as the "Aphrodite of Knidos” in which Aphrodite accompanied by a cupid is surprised while bathing.  Inv MR 369   (or Ma 335), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) “Capitoline Type”. 2nd centuryAD Roman statue in marble discovered at the Acqua Traversa near Rome.  The statue belong to a series of Roman replicas of a Greek original that reproduce a famous picture of goddess Aphrodite (Venus) and the best known copy is in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. The now lost, the Greek original dates from the 2nd century or 3rd BC and is known as the "Aphrodite of Knidos” in which Aphrodite accompanied by a cupid is surprised while bathing.  Inv MR 369   (or Ma 335), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Aphrodite (Venus to the Romans) “Capitoline Type”. 2nd centuryAD Roman statue in marble discovered at the Acqua Traversa near Rome.  The statue belong to a series of Roman replicas of a Greek original that reproduce a famous picture of goddess Aphrodite (Venus) and the best known copy is in the Capitoline Museums in Rome. The now lost, the Greek original dates from the 2nd century or 3rd BC and is known as the "Aphrodite of Knidos” in which Aphrodite accompanied by a cupid is surprised while bathing.  Inv MR 369   (or Ma 335), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Artemis and a deer, known as "Diana of Versailles”, a 1st - 2nd century Roman statue in marble probably from Italy.  Artemis, Diana to the Romans, is goddess of the hunt, is accompanied by a deer.  The Diana of Versailles, similar to other Roman replicas was found in Libya or Turkey and was copied from a lost Greek bronze original attributed to Leochares, c. 325 BC .  First the statue was at Fontainbleau then the Louvre ancient hall and finally it went to Versailles. From the collection of Louis XIV, Pope Paul IV and Henry II (1556) . Inv MR 152 ( or Ma 589), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Centaur with Eros on its back, a 1st - 2nd AD Roman sculpture in marble. Tradition has it that a centaur be a monstrous half-man half-horse mythical creature. In this Roman statue the old centaur is being ridden by Eros (Cupid), the Greek god of Love represented in the form of a young wing child. The sculpture is a copy of a Greek original  attributed to school sculpture of Aphrodisias (Turkey) can be dating in the 2nd century BC. The Borghese Collection inv MR 122 ( or Ma 562 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Centaur with Eros on its back, a 1st - 2nd AD Roman sculpture in marble. Tradition has it that a centaur be a monstrous half-man half-horse mythical creature. In this Roman statue the old centaur is being ridden by Eros (Cupid), the Greek god of Love represented in the form of a young wing child. The sculpture is a copy of a Greek original  attributed to school sculpture of Aphrodisias (Turkey) can be dating in the 2nd century BC. The Borghese Collection inv MR 122 ( or Ma 562 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Pan removing a thorn from the foot of a satyr. 1st - 2nd AD Roman sculpture in marble. Pan (Faunus to the Romans) , the Greek god of shepherds, is recognisable as a hybrid of half-man half-goat. This group, of which several Roman versions exist, dates from circa 50 BC. The Borghese Collection inv MR 193 ( or Ma 320 ), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Nymph with a shell ( Nymphe a la coquille ) a 1st century marble statue from Italy which was part of the Borghese collection . Louvre Museum, Paris Cat No MR 309. <br />
The Nymph with a shell statue was much admired in the 17th century and influenced such art its as Velasquez. The statue symbolises a carefree childhood and the fact that terracotta versions have been found in tombs suggests that the statue was associated with the injustice of death or of a rebirth.
  • Nymph with a shell ( Nymphe a la coquille ) a 1st century marble statue from Italy which was part of the Borghese collection . Louvre Museum, Paris Cat No MR 309. <br />
The Nymph with a shell statue was much admired in the 17th century and influenced such art its as Velasquez. The statue symbolises a carefree childhood and the fact that terracotta versions have been found in tombs suggests that the statue was associated with the injustice of death or of a rebirth.
  • Nymph with a shell ( Nymphe a la coquille ) a 1st century marble statue from Italy which was part of the Borghese collection . Louvre Museum, Paris Cat No MR 309. <br />
The Nymph with a shell statue was much admired in the 17th century and influenced such art its as Velasquez. The statue symbolises a carefree childhood and the fact that terracotta versions have been found in tombs suggests that the statue was associated with the injustice of death or of a rebirth.
  • Bacchante or Ariadne, a Roman marble statue of circa 150 - 200 AD. The bunch of grapes wrapped in the folds of her garment suggest that the statue depicts either Bacchante or Ariadne both  companions of Dionysus. The statue belongs to a very limited series of replicas (Florence, Venice, Rome, Cyrene) reproducing a Greek original lost year circa 300 BC made by the school from Rhodes. The Borghese collection inv MR 102 ( or Ma 676), Louvre Museum Paris
  • Bacchante or Ariadne, a Roman marble statue of circa 150 - 200 AD. The bunch of grapes wrapped in the folds of her garment suggest that the statue depicts either Bacchante or Ariadne both  companions of Dionysus. The statue belongs to a very limited series of replicas (Florence, Venice, Rome, Cyrene) reproducing a Greek original lost year circa 300 BC made by the school from Rhodes. The Borghese collection inv MR 102 ( or Ma 676), Louvre Museum Paris
  • “ Silenus Drunk “ - A 2nd century AD Roman sculpture made from marble from Paros. Silenus was described as the oldest, wisest and most drunken of the followers of Dionysus, the god of wine. When intoxicated, Silenus was said to possess special knowledge and the power of prophecy. From the Ancient Royal Collection of France inv MR 343 (or MA 291) previously held at Versailles. Louvre Museum Paris.
  • Altar of the Twelve Gods a Roman relief sculpture. This curious object, perhaps a Zodiacal altar, has the signs of the zodiac and busts of the twelve gods identified by their attributes. From the Borghese Collection  Inv MR 959  (or Ma 666), The Louvre Mueum, Paris.
  • Sleeping Hermaphroditus, The Borghese Hermaphrodite.  A Life size ancient 2nd century AD Roman statue sculpted in Greek Marble and found in the grounds of Santa Maria della Vittoria, near the Baths of Diocletian, Rome. It was added to the Borghese Collection by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, in the 17th century and was named the "Borghese Hermaphroditus”. It was later sold to the occupying French and was removed it to The Louvre. Hermaphrodite, son of Hermes and Aphrodite had repels the advances of the nymph Salmacis. However, she got Zeus as their two bodies are united in a bisexual being. The Sleeping Hermaphroditus has been described as a good early Imperial Roman copy of a bronze original by the later of the two Hellenistic sculptors named Polycles (150 BC) the original bronze was mentioned in Pliny's Natural History. In 1619  Bernini sculpted the mattress on which the ancient marble of Hermaphrodite lies. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Sleeping Hermaphroditus, The Borghese Hermaphrodite.  A Life size ancient 2nd century AD Roman statue sculpted in Greek Marble and found in the grounds of Santa Maria della Vittoria, near the Baths of Diocletian, Rome. It was added to the Borghese Collection by Cardinal Scipione Borghese, in the 17th century and was named the "Borghese Hermaphroditus”. It was later sold to the occupying French and was removed it to The Louvre. Hermaphrodite, son of Hermes and Aphrodite had repels the advances of the nymph Salmacis. However, she got Zeus as their two bodies are united in a bisexual being. The Sleeping Hermaphroditus has been described as a good early Imperial Roman copy of a bronze original by the later of the two Hellenistic sculptors named Polycles (150 BC) the original bronze was mentioned in Pliny's Natural History. In 1619  Bernini sculpted the mattress on which the ancient marble of Hermaphrodite lies. Louvre Museum, Paris
  • Original Roman bronze statue of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on horseback. 175 AD. Marcus Aurelus was the last of the Five Good Emperors, and is also considered one of the most important Stoic philosophers. In 1979 it was discovered that the the equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, in the courtyard of the Capitline Museum, had suffered badly from corrosion, particularly in its legs. The staue was removed from Michael Angelo’s plinth and was transferred to the National Instution for the Restoration of works of art for preservation. On the 11th of April 1990 the restored statue was returned to the Cpitaline courtyard and covered with a glass protective casing. The glass box ruined the design of Michael Angelo’s courtyard and it was decided to make a copy to display in the courted and move the original into the Capitoiline Musuem. This is a rare example of a bronze equestrian statue as it became common practice for the Romans in the late empire to melt down bronze statues to mint coins. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Gigantic Roman bronze statue hand possibly from a sculpture of Emperor Constantine, from Rome. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Gigantic Roman bronze statue hand from Rome. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Gigantic Roman bronze statue hand from Rome. The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Emperor Hadrian, 117-138 AD found in the Horti Tauriani, Rome.  The bust portrays an elderly Hadrian with a well worn expression from around 130AD. An enthusiastic builder Hadrian rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma as well as building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Roman Britain. His villa at Tivoli also showed Hadrian passion for water and Roman baths. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors.  MC inv 890, Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Matidia circa119 AD from Via Giolitti, Rome. Matidia was Sabina’s mother and Hadrian’s wife. The high level of idealisation of the portrait suggests that it was made after her death. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble portrait bust of Matidia circa119 AD from Via Giolitti, Rome. Matidia was Sabina’s mother and Hadrian’s wife. The high level of idealisation of the portrait suggests that it was made after her death. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble statue of the Esquiline Venus or Aphrodite dated to the 1st cent. It was found in 1874 in Piazza Dante on the Esquiline Hill in Rome, probably part of the site of the Horti Lamiani, one of the imperial gardens, rich archaeological sources of classical sculpture. The Esquiline Venus is an example of the Pasitelean “eclectic" style of the Neo-Attic school. It combines elements from a variety of other previous schools - a Praxitelean idea of the nude female form; a face, muscular torso, and small high breasts in the fifth-century BC severe style; and pressed-together thighs typical of Hellenistic sculptures. Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD.Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman marble bust of Commodus as Hercules. Circa191-192 AD found in an underground chamber in the Horti Lamiani area of Rome. The son of Marcus Aurelus is shown with the features of Hercules and is characterised by Greek hero’s attributes: the lion’s skin, the club, the apples of Hesperides. The character is accompanied by fantastic sea creatures in a composition symbolising his apotheosis. The work can be dated to the final period of the life of Commodus, between 191-192 AD. Commodus was one of Rome’s bad crazy Emperors being sadistic and debauched with a harem of 300 concubines to choose from. His favourite role playing character was that of Hercules and Commodus ordered many statues to be made showing him dressed as Hercules with a lion's hide and a club. He thought of himself as the reincarnation of Hercules, frequently emulating the legendary hero's feats by appearing in the arena to fight a variety of wild animals. Commodus raised the ire of many military officials in Rome for his Hercules persona in the arena. Often, wounded soldiers and amputees would be placed in the arena for Commodus to slay with a sword. Commodus's eccentric behaviour would not stop there. Citizens of Rome missing their feet through accident or illness were taken to the arena, where they were tethered together for Commodus to club to death while pretending they were giants.[17] These acts may have contributed to his assassination. Such ruthless antics probably led to the violent death of Commodus when a wrestler assassinated him by strangling him to death. MC.1120 Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman gilded bronze head of Emperor Constantine dating from about 330-337 AD.. Inv 5.13, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman sculpted head of Dionysus inspired by a Hellenistic original. Found in the Horti Lamiani near the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele, Rome. M.C. Inv 1129, The Capitoline Museums, Rome
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman statue of Augustus as Pontifex Maximus, circa 17-14 BC.  This statue of Augustus was typical of the approved style that Augustus used to control his public image. As Pontifex Maximus the statue emphasises the piety of the ruler and his reverence for the gods and traditions of Rome. Augustus thus revitalised the role and function of the most ancient Roman priesthoods and exalted the myths that narrated the origins of Rome. The statue is part of the political propaganda that Augustus used to cement his position of first amongst equals to the very conservative Romans.  National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief panel showing a Barbarian, circa 98-117 AD from the Palace of Montecitorio, Rome. This  relief panel is part of a larger work. It represents a battle and the figure can be identified as a barbarian by his eastern style tunic and thick beard. Judging by the quality of the execution, the relief must have belonged to an important public monument situated in the area of the Campus Martius .  Inv 39163, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman bust of Socrates, 1st cent AD from the construction site of the monument to Vitorio Emanuel II,  Rome, Italy. This portrait of Socrates is similar to the Herm of Socrates from the Naples National Museum. In xenophon’s Symposium socrates is described as ‘Short body with wide shoulders, prominent belly, aquiline nose, thick wide mouth and head almost completely bold. In 399 BC the famous Athenian philosopher was condemned to death for impiety and corruption. Inv 1236, National Roman Museum, Rome.
  • Roman relief sculpture on a sarcophagus side showing a married couple with pagan deities, circa 270 - 280 AD from the via Latina, Rome, Italy. National Roman Musuem, Rome.
  • Roman statue of an Emperor with a breastplate (loricata) from the 2nd cent AD from the Imperial Villa, Rome. The statue depicts a man in military dress, with a breastplate (lorca) decorated within griffins and a cluster of acanthus, and edged by a series of pendants (pteryges) with a head of ferocious animals and a cloak (paludamentum). In his left hand remains the traces of a sword; his raised right arm probably leant on a spear. On his feat he wears shoes decorated at the ankles with a lion skin. The statue dates from the dynasty of the Antonine Emperors and is the dress of the supreme military commander.  The National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy
  • Roman mask from the  National Roman Museum, Rome, Italy

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